1. Family: Solanaceae Juss.
    1. Datura L.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is SW. & S. Central U.S.A. to Central America, Caribbean.

    [FTEA]

    Solanaceae, Jennifer M Edmonds. Oliganthes, Melongena & Monodolichopus, Maria S. Vorontsova & Sandra Knapp. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2012

    Habit
    Annual or semiperennial herbs and shrubs, often malodorous.
    Stem
    Main stem often stout, woody and dichotomously branched, spherical stalked brownish glands present on all parts
    Leaves
    Leaves alternate or opposite
    Flowers
    Flowers usually solitary and in branch forks, always erect, usually fragrant, opening diurnally and remaining open during anthesis, with prominent venation; pedicels short, elongating during fruiting
    Calyx
    Calyx tubular, usually enclosing the lower half of the corolla tube; calyx lobes five; base circumsessile, forming a ridged collar which often persistent
    Corolla
    Corolla tubular below becoming funnel- or trumpet-shaped above, sometimes double or triple; tube long and slender, the lobes fused almost to the apex, with 5 or 10 terminal acuminate to caudate lobes or teeth
    Stamens
    Stamens inserted on lower half of corolla tube and alternating with lobes, equal, included; filaments glabrous above, slender, filiform, widening towards point of adnation to corolla tube from where usually sparsely pilose; anthers oblong, basifixed, free, dehiscing longitudinally, often with long hairs on dehiscent margins
    Ovary
    Ovary superior, conical, softly spinose or tuberculate, bilocular above, but 4-loculate basally owing to a false septum, ovules numerous, placentation axile; style long, filiform, glabrous, sometimes exserted beyond anthers but included; stigma bilobed, clasping the stylar apex
    Fruits
    Fruit ovoid or globose 2–4celled capsules, dehiscing irregularly or by 2 or 4 valves from the apex; valves usually spinose or tuberculate, rarely smooth, subtended by the persistent discoid remains of the calyx which adherent or reflexed, forming a frill or collar beneath capsule; fruiting pedicels elongated and stout, erect or pendulous
    Seeds
    Seeds large, reniform or discoid, with a thick (suberose) corky testa; funicular caruncle (elaiosome) welldeveloped, numerous.
    Note
    All Old World Daturas, collectively known as the Thorn Apples, were introduced from the Americas during the early years of intensive European colonization of the New World ( cf. Symon & Haegi, 1991 in Solanaceae III: 197; Persson et al., 1999). Three naturalised species are found throughout the East African region, where they are probably also widely cultivated for their hallucinogenic, medicinal and narcotic effects as well as for their ornamental value. They all contain the tropane alkaloids scopolamine and hyoscyamine, plus steroidal lactones of the withanoloid group ( cf. Hunziker, 2001 for extensive references).
    [FZ]

    Flora Zambesiaca. Vol. 8, Part 4. Solanaceae. Gonçalves AE. 2005

    Habit
    Annual or short-lived perennial herbs or sometimes subshrubs or shrubs from a woody rootstock, often foetid, glabrous or pubescent to glabrescent; indumentum of erect to appressed, simple non-glandular to glandular trichomes, dense on immature foliage, pedicels and calyces, sparse or absent on mature parts, or sometimes remaining pubescent Annual or short-lived perennial herbs or sometimes subshrubs or shrubs from a woody rootstock, often foetid, glabrous or pubescent to glabrescent; indumentum of erect to appressed, simple non-glandular to glandular trichomes, dense on immature foliage, pedicels and calyces, sparse or absent on mature parts, or sometimes remaining pubescent.
    Leaves
    Leaves alternate, the upper ones in the floral region sometimes in pairs appearing opposite with one larger than the other, petiolate, entire or deeply or shallowly sinuate-dentate or coarsely and sharply incised-dentate Leaves alternate, the upper ones in the floral region sometimes in pairs appearing opposite with one larger than the other, petiolate, entire or deeply or shallowly sinuate-dentate or coarsely and sharply incised-dentate.
    Flowers
    Flowers usually solitary, axillary or in the forks of the branching stem, actinomorphic or almost so. Flowers usually solitary, axillary or in the forks of the branching stem, actinomorphic or almost so; pedicels ± erect but sometimes becoming pendulous in fruit.
    Pedicel
    Pedicels ± erect but sometimes becoming pendulous in fruit
    Calyx
    Calyx shorter than the corolla tube, tubular, usually 5-angled to 5-ribbed, somewhat inflated or appressed to the corolla tube, 5-lobed or narrowly toothed; tube circumscissile near the base after anthesis, leaving an annular basal remnant which in fruit is often enlarged into a spreading or reflexed shield or cup; lobes much shorter than the tube, with valvate aestivation Calyx shorter than the corolla tube, tubular, usually 5-angled to 5-ribbed, somewhat inflated or appressed to the corolla tube, 5-lobed or narrowly toothed; tube circumscissile near the base after anthesis, leaving an annular basal remnant which in fruit is often enlarged into a spreading or reflexed shield or cup; lobes much shorter than the tube, with valvate aestivation.
    Corolla
    Corolla white or violet to purplish, infundibuliform to ± tubular, sometimes double or triple; tube long and narrow widening towards the throat; limb broad, plicate, spreading, 5(6)-lobed, or 10(12)-lobed when a secondary lobe appears between the main lobes; lobes short and cuspidate or sometimes long-caudate, with a conduplicate-contorted aestivation Corolla white or violet to purplish, infundibuliform to ± tubular, sometimes double or triple; tube long and narrow widening towards the throat; limb broad, plicate, spreading, 5(6)-lobed, or 10(12)-lobed when a secondary lobe appears between the main lobes; lobes short and cuspidate or sometimes long-caudate, with a conduplicate-contorted aestivation.
    Stamens
    Stamens (4)5(6), ± equal, included or slightly exserted; filaments linear-subulate, adnate to the lower half of the corolla tube; anthers basifixed, linear-oblong to narrowly elliptic or ovate in outline, slightly curved, dehiscing by longitudinal slits Stamens (4)5(6), ± equal, included or slightly exserted; filaments linear-subulate, adnate to the lower half of the corolla tube; anthers basifixed, linear-oblong to narrowly elliptic or ovate in outline, slightly curved, dehiscing by longitudinal slits.
    Disc
    Disk none Disk none.
    Ovary
    Ovary ± globose, provided with soft excrescences (rarely smooth), 2-locular, sometimes with a false septum and 4-locular below; ovules numerous in each locule on placentas adnate to the septa, hemicampylotropous.
    Style
    Style slender.
    Stigma
    Stigma often 2-lobed to 2-lamellate at the tip, included
    Note
    All parts of the plants are extremely toxic. Flour made from grain containing datura seed has caused poisoning and stock poisoning can occur when datura plants are gathered together with fodder plants. Satina & Avery in Chron. Bot. 20: 36 (1959) considered Datura sensu lato to include Brugmansia, however, recent workers treat these as distinct and I follow D'Arcy in Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 60: 582 (1974) in keeping the genera separate. Two sections are recognized: sect. Datura (sect. Stramonium Bernhardi) with D. stramonium and D. ferox and sect. Dutra Bernhardi with D. inoxia and D. metel.
    Pistil
    Ovary ± globose, provided with soft excrescences (rarely smooth), 2-locular, sometimes with a false septum and 4-locular below; ovules numerous in each locule on placentas adnate to the septa, hemicampylotropous; style slender; stigma often 2-lobed to 2-lamellate at the tip, included.
    Fruits
    Fruit a capsule, globose to ellipsoid or ovoid, erect or deflexed, leathery, covered with soft or woody spine-like excrescences or tubercles (rarely smooth), semi-4-locular, apically dehiscent by 2 loculicidal and sometimes also 2 septicidal slits to ± halfway, the 4 dry valves incomplete. Fruit a capsule, globose to ellipsoid or ovoid, erect or deflexed, leathery, covered with soft or woody spine-like excrescences or tubercles (rarely smooth), semi-4-locular, apically dehiscent by 2 loculicidal and sometimes also 2 septicidal slits to ± halfway, the 4 dry valves incomplete
    Seeds
    Seeds numerous, relatively large, laterally compressed, wedge-shaped or reniform, or ± oblong in outline, sometimes with a funicular caruncle (elaiosome); testa moderately crustaceous, hard, or moderately subereous, very thick, smooth or roughened; embryo ± circinnate, flattened, subperipheral, in the fleshy or horny endosperm, with radicle terete; cotyledons semi-terete or linear in outline. Seeds numerous, relatively large, laterally compressed, wedge-shaped or reniform, or ± oblong in outline, sometimes with a funicular caruncle (elaiosome); testa moderately crustaceous, hard, or moderately subereous, very thick, smooth or roughened; embryo ± circinnate, flattened, subperipheral, in the fleshy or horny endosperm, with radicle terete; cotyledons semi-terete or linear in outline

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Arizona, Bahamas, Belize, Bermuda, California, Colombia, Colorado, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Netherlands Antilles, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Panamá, Texas, Turks-Caicos Is., Utah

    Introduced into:

    Afghanistan, Alabama, Albania, Aldabra, Algeria, Altay, Andaman Is., Angola, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Argentina South, Aruba, Ascension, Assam, Austria, Azores, Baleares, Baltic States, Bangladesh, Belarus, Belgium, Benin, Bismarck Archipelago, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Bulgaria, Burkina, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Central African Repu, Central European Rus, Chad, Chile Central, Chile North, Chile South, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Christmas I., Congo, Cook Is., Corse, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Djibouti, East Aegean Is., East European Russia, East Himalaya, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Florida, France, Free State, French Guiana, Galápagos, Gambia, Germany, Ghana, Gilbert Is., Great Britain, Greece, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Gulf States, Hainan, Hawaii, Hungary, Illinois, India, Inner Mongolia, Iran, Iraq, Italy, Ivory Coast, Jawa, Juan Fernández Is., Kazakhstan, Kentucky, Kenya, Kirgizstan, Korea, Kriti, Krym, Kuwait, KwaZulu-Natal, Laccadive Is., Laos, Lebanon-Syria, Leeward Is., Lesotho, Lesser Sunda Is., Libya, Madagascar, Madeira, Malawi, Maldives, Mali, Manchuria, Mauritania, Mauritius, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nepal, Netherlands, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New South Wales, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Nicaragua, Nicobar Is., Niger, Nigeria, Niue, Norfolk Is., Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Northwest European R, Norway, Oman, Oregon, Pakistan, Palestine, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Primorye, Puerto Rico, Qinghai, Queensland, Rodrigues, Romania, Rwanda, Réunion, Sardegna, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sicilia, Sierra Leone, Sinai, Society Is., Socotra, Somalia, South Australia, South European Russi, Southwest Caribbean, Spain, Sri Lanka, St.Helena, Sudan, Sulawesi, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Tadzhikistan, Taiwan, Tanzania, Tasmania, Tennessee, Thailand, Tibet, Togo, Tonga, Transcaucasus, Trinidad-Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Ukraine, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Vermont, Victoria, Vietnam, West Himalaya, West Siberia, Western Australia, Windward Is., Xinjiang, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Datura L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Nelson, E.W. [6430], Mexico K000063059
    s.coll. [Cat. no. s.n.] K001132451
    s.coll. [Cat. no. s.n.] K001132452
    s.coll. [Cat. no. s.n.] K001132453
    Akkul, M. [Cat. no. s.n.], Myanmar K001132450

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 179 (1753)

    Accepted by

    • Bye, R. & Sosa, V. (2013). Molecular phylogeny of the Jimsonweed genus Datura (Solanaceae) Systematic Botany 38: 818-829.
    • Govaerts, R. (2000). World Checklist of Seed Plants Database in ACCESS D: 1-30141.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • Fosberg in Taxon 8: 52 (1959)
    • Satina, Avery & Sachet in Blakeslee, The Genus Datura 16—47 (1959).
    • —F.T.A. 4, 2: 258
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Hunziker, Gen. Solanacearum: 149 (2001).
    • Nee, Symon, Lester & Jessop, Solanaceae IV: 171–187 (1999).
    • Persson, Knapp & Blackmore in Nee, Symon, Lester & Jessop, Solanaceae IV: 171–187 (1999).
    • Hawkes, Lester, Nee & Estrada, Solanaceae III: 197 (1991).
    • Symon & Haegi in Hawkes, Lester, Nee & Estrada, Solanaceae III: 197 (1991).
    • Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 83 (1754).
    • Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 83 (1754).
    • Datura L., Sp. Pl.: 179 (1753)
    • Sp. Pl.: 179 (1753)
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Hunziker, Gen. Solanaceae: 149–153 (2001)
    • Solanaceae IV: 171–187 (1999);
    • J.L.S. 125: 295–308 (1997);
    • Aust. J. Bot. 24: 415–435 (1976);
    • Chronica Botanica 20: 16–47 (1959);
    • Journ. Wash. Acad. Sci. 11(8): 173–189 (1921);
    • DC., Prodr. 13(1): 538 (1852);
    • Syst. Nat. 2, ed. 10: 932 (1759);
    • Gen. Pl. ed. 5: 83 (1754)
    • Sp. Pl.; 179 (1753)

    Sources

    Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0