1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Koeleria Pers.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Temp. Eurasia, NW. Africa, Cameroon, Ethiopia to S. Africa, New Zealand, N. America, Peru to S. South America, Falkland Islands.

    [FTEA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips And S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

    Habit
    Short tufted perennials, with or without rhizomes, sometimes annuals
    Leaves
    Leaf-blades usually very narrow
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a spike-like panicle, often lobed or interrupted, glistening
    Spikelets
    Spikelets (1–)2–8(–13)-flowered, all alike, the rhachilla produced and with or without a rudimentary lemma; glumes subequal or unequal, lanceolate, keeled, with hyaline margins, mostly subacute to acuminate; lemmas usually a little longer than the glumes, faintly 3–5(–7)-nerved with hyaline margins, usually acute to acuminate, with or without a short terminal awn; callus obscure, glabrous or almost so; stamens 3; stigmas 2.
    [FZ]

    Gramineae, E. Launert. Flora Zambesiaca 10:1. 1971

    Spikelets
    Spikelets very shortly pedicelled, laterally compressed, (rarely 1) 2-many-flowered, muticous or awned; florets hermaphrodite or the uppermost one more or less reduced; rhachilla disarticulating above the glumes and between the florets, produced or often terminated by a reduced lemma, pubescent or glabrous.
    Glume
    Glumes 2, unequal to subequal, persistent, subacute to acuminate or more rarely obtuse, with hyaline margins; the inferior 1-3-nerved; the superior 3-5-nerved.
    Lemma
    Lemmas almost always exceeding the glumes, 3-5 (rarely 7-)-nerved, the lateral nerves usually not very distinct, the middle nerve prominent and sometimes excurrent into a short mucro, both margins and apex hyaline; callus very short, glabrous or shortly pilose.
    Palea
    Paleas shorter than or almost as long as the corresponding lemmas, 2-keeled, hyaline, with the apex 2-dentate.
    Lodicules
    Lodicules 2, very small, hyaline.
    Stamens
    Stamens 3.
    Pistil
    Ovary glabrous; styles distinct, rather short; stigmas plumose, laterally exserted.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis linear-oblong to oblong in outline, laterally compressed, of soft consistency, tightly embraced by the lemma; hilum basal, very minute.
    Habit
    Perennials or annuals of varying habitats.
    Ligules
    Ligule a hyaline membrane.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle, usually more or less contracted, rarely lax and open, usually almost cylindrical, often interrupted in the lower part, glabrous or hairy.
    [GB]

    nonem

    Habit
    Perennial. Rhizomes absent (23/45), or short (17/45), or elongated (6/45). Culms erect (35/44), or geniculately ascending (11/44), or decumbent (1/44); slender (1/1); 4-36.92-100 cm long. Lateral branches lacking (11/11). Leaf-sheath auricles absent (45), or erect (1). Ligule an eciliate membrane (38), or a ciliolate membrane (8). Leaf-blades filiform (7), or linear (43); stiff (15), or firm (30), or flaccid (1). Leaf-blade margins cartilaginous (3/3).
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle; exserted, or embraced at base by subtending leaf (2). Panicle open (1), or contracted (8), or spiciform (41), or capitate (1). Spikelets solitary. Fertile spikelets sessile (1), or pedicelled (45). Pedicels linear (1/5), or oblong (4/5).
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets (1), or 2 fertile florets (43), or 3 fertile florets (31), or 4 fertile florets (6); with a barren rhachilla extension (26), or with diminished florets at the apex (29). Spikelets lanceolate (2/45), or elliptic (2/45), or oblong (16/45), or obovate (20/45), or cuneate (12/45); laterally compressed; 2-5.25-10 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Rhachilla internodes glabrous (8), or sparsely hairy (1), or pubescent (35), or pilose (3). Floret callus glabrous (1/10), or sparsely hairy (4/10), or pubescent (6/10).
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets (1), or 2 fertile florets (43), or 3 fertile florets (31), or 4 fertile florets (6); with a barren rhachilla extension (26), or with diminished florets at the apex (29). Spikelets lanceolate (2/45), or elliptic (2/45), or oblong (16/45), or obovate (20/45), or cuneate (12/45); laterally compressed; 2-5.25-10 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Rhachilla internodes glabrous (8), or sparsely hairy (1), or pubescent (35), or pilose (3). Floret callus glabrous (1/10), or sparsely hairy (4/10), or pubescent (6/10).
    Glume
    Glumes persistent; shorter than spikelet (40), or reaching apex of florets (13); thinner than fertile lemma (1), or similar to fertile lemma in texture (45); parallel to lemmas (5), or gaping (41). Lower glume lanceolate (41), or elliptic (2), or oblong (5); 0.33-0.8391-1.1 length of upper glume; hyaline (1), or membranous (45); without keels (1), or 1-keeled (45); 1 -veined (37/42), or 2 -veined (2/42), or 3 -veined (7/42). Lower glume lateral veins absent (37), or distinct (11). Lower glume surface smooth (45), or asperulous (3); glabrous (44), or puberulous (2), or pubescent (5), or villous (1). Lower glume apex entire, or erose (1); obtuse (4), or acute (30), or acuminate (13), or attenuate (2); muticous (45), or mucronate (1). Upper glume lanceolate (21), or elliptic (5), or oblong (17), or ovate (3), or obovate (2); 0.66-0.955-1.25 length of adjacent fertile lemma; hyaline (1), or membranous (45); with undifferentiated margins (32), or hyaline margins (14); without keels (1), or 1-keeled (45); 3 -veined (40/40), or 4-7 -veined (1/40). Upper glume primary vein eciliate (44), or ciliolate (1), or ciliate (1). Upper glume surface smooth (45), or asperulous (3); glabrous (44), or puberulous (2), or pubescent (5), or villous (1). Upper glume apex entire, or erose (1); obtuse (4), or acute (34), or acuminate (9), or attenuate (2); muticous (44), or mucronate (3), or awned (1); 1 -awned (1/1).
    Florets
    Fertile lemma lanceolate (6), or elliptic (10), or oblong (27), or ovate (2), or obovate (1), or oblanceolate (1); membranous (44), or chartaceous (2); of similar consistency on margins (32), or much thinner on margins (14); without keel (1), or keeled (45); 3 -veined (13/27), or 4 -veined (2/27), or 5 -veined (16/27). Lemma midvein without distinctive roughness (40), or scaberulous (1), or scabrous (5). Lemma lateral veins obscure (5/6), or distinct (1/6); stopping well short of apex (3/3). Lemma surface smooth (37), or asperulous (4), or scaberulous (4), or scabrous (3); glabrous (34), or puberulous (8), or pubescent (4), or pilose (2), or villous (1). Lemma apex entire (44), or dentate (3); 2 -fid (3/3); emarginate (1/45), or obtuse (5/45), or acute (31/45), or acuminate (15/45), or attenuate (4/45), or setaceously attenuate (4/45); muticous (28), or mucronate (12), or awned (18); 0 -awned (1/18), or 1 -awned (18/18). Principal lemma awn apical (10/26), or subapical (16/26); straight (25/26), or curved (2/26). Palea embraced by lemma (4), or gaping (42); 0.5-0.9462-1 length of lemma; hyaline (1), or membranous (45). Palea keels smooth (35), or scaberulous (7), or scabrous (4); eciliate (44), or ciliolate (2). Palea apex dentate (3/3); muticous (45), or with excurrent keel veins (1). Apical sterile florets resembling fertile though underdeveloped (29/29).
    Flowers
    Lodicules 2 (39/39); membranous (37/37); 2-toothed (9/9). Anthers 3 (45/45). Ovary glabrous (33/33).
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp (28/28); fusiform (4/8), or ellipsoid (2/8), or oblong (1/8), or ovoid (1/8); laterally compressed (4/4). Embryo 0.2 length of caryopsis. Hilum elliptic (5/5); 0.2-0.225-0.25 length of caryopsis.
    Distribution
    Europe (20), or Africa (7), or Temperate Asia (17), or Tropical Asia (1), or Australasia (4), or Pacific (1), or North America (3), or South America (11), or Antarctica (1).

    Images

    Distribution

    Doubtfully present in:

    East Himalaya

    Native to:

    Afghanistan, Alabama, Alaska, Albania, Alberta, Algeria, Altay, Amur, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Argentina South, Arizona, Arkansas, Austria, Baleares, Baltic States, Belarus, Belgium, Bolivia, British Columbia, Bulgaria, Buryatiya, California, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Central European Rus, Chile Central, Chile North, Chile South, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Chita, Colorado, Corse, Czechoslovakia, Delaware, Denmark, East Aegean Is., East European Russia, Ethiopia, Falkland Is., France, Free State, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Hungary, Illinois, Indiana, Inner Mongolia, Iowa, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Irkutsk, Italy, Japan, Kamchatka, Kansas, Kazakhstan, Kentucky, Kenya, Khabarovsk, Kirgizstan, Korea, Krasnoyarsk, Krym, KwaZulu-Natal, Lebanon-Syria, Lesotho, Louisiana, Madeira, Magadan, Maine, Malawi, Manchuria, Manitoba, Maryland, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southwest, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Mongolia, Montana, Morocco, Mozambique, Nebraska, Nepal, Netherlands, Nevada, New Mexico, New York, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, North Caucasus, North Dakota, North European Russi, Northern Provinces, Northwest European R, Northwest Territorie, Ohio, Oklahoma, Ontario, Oregon, Pakistan, Pennsylvania, Peru, Poland, Portugal, Primorye, Qinghai, Québec, Romania, Sardegna, Saskatchewan, Sicilia, South Dakota, South European Russi, Spain, Sudan, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Tadzhikistan, Tanzania, Texas, Tibet, Transcaucasus, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Turkmenistan, Tuva, Uganda, Ukraine, Uruguay, Utah, Uzbekistan, Vermont, Washington, West Himalaya, West Siberia, Wisconsin, Wyoming, Xinjiang, Yakutskiya, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Yukon, Zambia, Zimbabwe

    Extinct in:

    Juan Fernández Is.

    Introduced into:

    Hawaii, New South Wales, Tasmania, Victoria

    Koeleria Pers. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Hinton, G.B. [2317], México State K000465762
    Hinton, G.B. [2317], México State K000465763
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 3792], Nepal K001117224

    First published in Syn. Pl. 1: 97 (1805)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R.H.A. (2011). World checklist of selected plant families published update Facilitated by the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • F.T.A. 10: 94 (1937).
    • Domin in Biblio. Bot. 14 (65) (1907)
    • Syn. Pl. 1: 97 (1805)
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Syn, Pl. 1: 97 (1805).
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Domin in Bibl. Bot. 14 (65) (1907)
    • Syn. Pl. 1: 97 (1805)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0