1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Triodia R.Br.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Australia.

    [GB]

    nonem

    Habit
    Perennial. Rhizomes absent, or elongated (1). Stolons absent (62), or present (7). Culms erect (17/19), or geniculately ascending (3/19), or decumbent (1/19), or rambling (1/19); robust (1/2), or slender (1/2); 20-97.29-300 cm long; without nodal roots (1/4), or with prop roots (2/4), or rooting from lower nodes (2/4). Culm-internodes terete (6/6), or elliptical in section (1/6). Lateral branches lacking (7/14), or ample (5/14), or fastigiate (2/14). Leaf-sheath auricles absent (65), or erect (3). Ligule a ciliate membrane (1), or a fringe of hairs (67). Leaf-blade base without a false petiole (60), or with a brief petiole-like connection to sheath (5), or with a false petiole (3). Leaf-blades persistent (67), or deciduous at the ligule (1); aciculate (39), or filiform (14), or linear (16); herbaceous (44), or coriaceous (24); stiff (60), or firm (9); without exudate (48), or resinous (21); without scent (63), or aromatic (5). Leaf-blade margins unthickened (1/2), or cartilaginous (1/2). Leaf-blade apex muticous (19), or pungent (49).
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle (55), or composed of racemes (13); exserted, or embraced at base by subtending leaf (3). Panicle open (47/55), or contracted (7/55), or spiciform (1/55). Racemes single (4/13), or borne along a central axis (9/13); appressed (6/13), or ascending (7/13); unilateral (11/12), or bilateral (1/12); bearing 14-18 fertile spikelets on each (1/1). Rhachis angular (1/1). Spikelet packing broadside to rhachis (4/4); 2 -rowed (5/5). Spikelets appressed (1/1); solitary, or in pairs (3). Fertile spikelets sessile (4), or sessile and pedicelled (1), or pedicelled (64). Pedicels filiform (10/12), or linear (1/12), or oblong (1/12).
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1-6-21 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets linear (11), or lanceolate (23), or elliptic (17), or oblong (19), or ovate (7), or cuneate (10); laterally compressed (64), or subterete (8), or dorsally compressed (1); 3-10.71-27 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Rhachilla internodes brief up to lowest fertile floret (60), or elongated between glumes (8); suppressed between florets (1/66), or definite (65/66); glabrous (61/65), or pubescent (4/65). Floret callus brief (62), or evident (3), or elongated (3); glabrous (13/46), or sparsely hairy (1/46), or pubescent (16/46), or pilose (9/46), or bearded (8/46), or woolly (1/46); truncate (6), or obtuse (56), or acute (5), or pungent (3).
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1-6-21 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets linear (11), or lanceolate (23), or elliptic (17), or oblong (19), or ovate (7), or cuneate (10); laterally compressed (64), or subterete (8), or dorsally compressed (1); 3-10.71-27 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Rhachilla internodes brief up to lowest fertile floret (60), or elongated between glumes (8); suppressed between florets (1/66), or definite (65/66); glabrous (61/65), or pubescent (4/65). Floret callus brief (62), or evident (3), or elongated (3); glabrous (13/46), or sparsely hairy (1/46), or pubescent (16/46), or pilose (9/46), or bearded (8/46), or woolly (1/46); truncate (6), or obtuse (56), or acute (5), or pungent (3).
    Glume
    Glumes persistent; shorter than spikelet (57), or reaching apex of florets (10), or exceeding apex of florets (5); thinner than fertile lemma (51), or similar to fertile lemma in texture (17); parallel to lemmas (66), or gaping (2). Lower glume linear (8), or lanceolate (43), or elliptic (8), or oblong (24), or ovate (9); clasping (1/1); 0.33-0.991-1.3 length of upper glume; membranous (10), or chartaceous (4), or scarious (44), or cartilaginous (14), or coriaceous (7); without keels (48), or 1-keeled (22); 1-4-16 -veined. Lower glume lateral veins absent (14), or obscure (10), or distinct (49), or prominent (2). Lower glume surface convex, or flat (1); smooth (44), or asperulous (27), or scabrous (7); glabrous (67), or pubescent (1), or pilose (2). Lower glume apex entire (65), or dentate (6), or lobed (2); 2 -fid (7/8), or 3 -fid (1/8); emarginate (2/66), or truncate (2/66), or obtuse (20/66), or acute (35/66), or acuminate (27/66), or attenuate (1/66), or setaceously attenuate (4/66); muticous (48), or mucronate (20), or awned (8). Upper glume linear (8), or lanceolate (42), or elliptic (8), or oblong (24), or ovate (9), or orbicular (1), or oblate (1); 0.4-1.418-5 length of adjacent fertile lemma; hyaline (1), or membranous (10), or chartaceous (5), or scarious (45), or cartilaginous (11), or coriaceous (7); with undifferentiated margins (63), or hyaline margins (1), or membranous margins (3), or scarious margins (1); without keels (48), or 1-keeled (22); 1-4-16 -veined. Upper glume surface smooth (47), or asperulous (26), or scabrous (5); glabrous (67), or pubescent (1), or pilose (2). Upper glume apex entire (62), or with a unilateral tooth (1), or dentate (8), or lobed (3); 1 -fid (1/11), or 2 -fid (8/11), or 3 -fid (3/11); emarginate (4/63), or truncate (2/63), or obtuse (19/63), or acute (38/63), or acuminate (22/63), or attenuate (1/63), or setaceously attenuate (4/63); muticous (47), or mucronate (21), or awned (8); 1 -awned (7/8), or 3 -awned (1/8).
    Florets
    Fertile lemma lanceolate (15), or elliptic (2), or oblong (43), or ovate (15), or orbicular (1), or obovate (3); membranous (7), or chartaceous (2), or scarious (9), or cartilaginous (10), or coriaceous (43), or indurate (7); of similar consistency above (64), or much thinner above (3), or firmer above (1); of similar consistency on margins (55), or much thinner on margins (13); without keel (66), or keeled (3); 3-7-15 -veined. Lemma midvein eciliate (42), or ciliolate (6), or ciliate (13), or pubescent (8). Lemma lateral veins obscure (2/6), or with distinct primaries but obscure intermediates (4/6). Lemma surface smooth (55), or scaberulous (14), or scabrous (1); glabrous (28), or puberulous (2), or pubescent (27), or pilose (9), or hirsute (5), or villous (1), or woolly (1); hairy on back (42/45), or between veins (1/45), or in lines (2/45). Lemma margins eciliate (37), or ciliolate (7), or ciliate (17), or pubescent (12). Lemma apex entire (5), or erose (1), or dentate (20), or lobed (43); 2 -fid (11/63), or 3 -fid (52/63); incised 0.05-0.2898-0.75 of lemma length; emarginate (2/34), or obtuse (5/34), or acute (21/34), or acuminate (11/34); muticous (39), or mucronate (9), or awned (24); 1 -awned (4/24), or 3 -awned (21/24). Principal lemma awn apical (26/33), or from a sinus (7/33); straight (27/33), or curved (7/33); limb glabrous (32/33), or ciliate (1/33). Lateral lemma awns subequal to principal (1/21), or shorter than principal (20/21). Palea embraced by lemma (67), or reflexed at apex (2); 0.5-0.8646-1 length of lemma; hyaline (2), or membranous (47), or scarious (4), or cartilaginous (13), or coriaceous (6), or indurate (4); 2 -veined (16/17), or 3 -veined (1/17). Palea keels unthickened (60), or thickened (8); wingless (41), or winged (27); smooth (46), or scaberulous (17), or scabrous (5); eciliate (44), or ciliolate (18), or ciliate (6). Palea surface glabrous (49), or puberulous (2), or pubescent (17), or pilose (2), or hirsute (1), or villous (1), or woolly (1). Palea apex entire (4/14), or erose (1/14), or dentate (11/14); muticous (67), or with excurrent keel veins (1). Apical sterile florets resembling fertile though underdeveloped (64), or distinct from fertile (4); 1-2 in number (1/5), or 3 in number (2/5), or 4 in number (1/5), or 5-6 in number (2/5), or 7 in number (1/5); barren (2/2); separate (2/4), or in a clump (2/4); rudimentary (2/4), or lanceolate (1/4), or orbicular (1/4). Apical sterile lemmas muticous (2/4), or awned (2/4).
    Flowers
    Lodicules 2 (37/37); fleshy (36/36); emarginate (1/2), or truncate (1/2). Anthers 3 (65/65).
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp (35/35); fusiform (1/4), or ellipsoid (2/4), or obovoid (3/4). Embryo 0.33 length of caryopsis. Hilum elliptic (1/1).
    Distribution
    Australasia.
    [GB]

    nonem

    Habit
    Perennial. Rhizomes absent (1), or short (1). Culms 75-163.7-300 cm long. Ligule a fringe of hairs. Leaf-blades coriaceous; stiff. Leaf-blade apex pungent.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle. Panicle open. Spikelets solitary. Fertile spikelets pedicelled.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets lanceolate; laterally compressed; 11-13.5-15 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Floret callus elongated; pubescent; pungent.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets lanceolate; laterally compressed; 11-13.5-15 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Floret callus elongated; pubescent; pungent.
    Glume
    Glumes persistent; shorter than spikelet. Lower glume lanceolate; 0.8-0.85-0.9 length of upper glume; cartilaginous; without keels; 1-2 -veined (1), or 3 -veined, or 4-5 -veined (1). Lower glume apex attenuate, or setaceously attenuate. Upper glume lanceolate; 1-1.175-1.3 length of adjacent fertile lemma; cartilaginous; without keels; 3-5 -veined. Upper glume apex attenuate, or setaceously attenuate.
    Florets
    Fertile lemma lanceolate; cartilaginous; without keel; 3 -veined. Lemma midvein eciliate (1), or ciliate. Lemma surface smooth (1), or asperulous (1). Lemma margins eciliate (1), or ciliate. Lemma apex acuminate; awned; 1 -awned. Palea 0.8-0.9-1 length of lemma; cartilaginous; 2 -veined. Palea keels scaberulous. Apical sterile florets 2-3 in number (1), or 4-5 in number; barren; in a clump; lanceolate. Apical sterile lemmas awned.
    Flowers
    Lodicules 2; fleshy. Anthers 3.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with tardily free pericarp; linear. Embryo 0.25 length of caryopsis. Hilum elliptic.
    Distribution
    Australasia.
    [GB]

    nonem

    Habit
    Perennial. Culms erect; 50-150 cm long. Ligule a fringe of hairs. Leaf-blades coriaceous; stiff. Leaf-blade apex pungent.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle. Panicle contracted. Spikelets solitary. Fertile spikelets pedicelled.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; with a barren rhachilla extension. Spikelets linear; subterete; 16-24 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Floret callus elongated; pubescent; pungent.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; with a barren rhachilla extension. Spikelets linear; subterete; 16-24 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Floret callus elongated; pubescent; pungent.
    Glume
    Glumes persistent; exceeding apex of florets; thinner than fertile lemma. Lower glume lanceolate; 1.1-1.3 length of upper glume; scarious; without keels; 9-11 -veined. Lower glume apex acuminate. Upper glume lanceolate; 1.5-1.75 length of adjacent fertile lemma; scarious; without keels; 3-5 -veined. Upper glume apex acuminate.
    Florets
    Fertile lemma lanceolate; laterally compressed; coriaceous; without keel; 3 -veined. Lemma margins convolute; covering most of palea; ciliate. Lemma apex lobed; 2 -fid; incised 0.1 of lemma length; awned; 1 -awned. Principal lemma awn from a sinus; flexuous. Palea 1 length of lemma; 2 -veined. Palea keels approximate.
    Flowers
    Lodicules 2. Anthers 3. Stigmas 2.
    Distribution
    Australasia.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    New South Wales, Northern Territory, Queensland, South Australia, Victoria, Western Australia

    Triodia R.Br. appears in other Kew resources:

    First published in Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holland.: 182 (1810)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R. (2019). World Checklist of Vascular Plants (WCVP Database) The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Sources

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0