1. Typhaceae Juss.

    1. This family is accepted.

[NTK]

Aona, L.Y.S. (2009). Neotropical Typhaceae.

Morphology
Description

Perennial plants with starchy rhizome , emergent from shallow water or growing in wet soil, sometimes completely submersed and floating. Leaves alternate , distichous , base strongly sheathing and elongate, parallel-veined blade , basal in young, sterile plants and forming an erect (false) stem , flowering plants also dispersed along 'stem', rarely bearing only hypsophylls. Inflorescence racemose, with numerous monoecious , hypogynous flowers grouped into very dense cylindric spikes. Flowers male and female, male flowers at base of  inflorescence , female flowers near  apex ; perianth of 1-several inconspicuous tepals or numerous slender bristles; stamens (1-)3(-8), the filaments distinct or connate ; anthers basifixed, dithecal; gynoecium pseudo-monomerous, with a single fertile carpel , less often with ca. 2-3 fully developed carpels connate to form a compound ovary ; stigmas or branches of common style accordingly 1-3; 1 pendulous ovule / carpel , bitegmic. Fruit small, dry, indehiscent or dorsally dehiscent ; seeds with straight embryo.

Distribution
Distribution in the Neotropics
  • Typha L. (ca. 13 spp. Central and South America).
Diagnostic
Other important characters
  • Rhizomatous aquatic.
  • Flowers very much reduced.
Distinguishing characters (always present)
  • Flowers monoecious (male and female), hypogynous, grouped into very dense cylindric spikes.
  • Typhaceae are wind pollinated, and have very reduced flowers.
Key differences from similar families
  • In general morphology the Typhaceae can be confused with Cyperaceae, Juncaceae and Poaceae. However, Typhaceae can be distinguished by the presence of monoecious flowers grouped into very dense cylindric spikes that reach up to 30 cm long, with female flowers at the apex and male flowers towards the base of the spike.
Notable genera and distinguishing features
  • Typha is a robust, rhizomatous herb that likes damp conditions.
  • Erect, linear leaves.
  • Distinctive, elongated, dense cylindrical inflorescences.
  • The part containing the carpellate flowers is borne below and separate from the part with the staminate flowers.

(Stevens 2009)

General Description
General notes
  • From the economic point of view, the floral involucre of Typha provides excellent quality fibre to be used in the textile industry.
  • Its leaves can also be used as a source of good quality cellulose to produce paper or for crafts.
  • The starch-rich rhizome is edible and its pollen, which is abundant and nutritious, is used in the pharmaceutical industry.
Notes on delimitation
  • Typhaceae are placed within Poales and, together with the Bromeliaceae, present three-nucleotide deletion in the atpA gene (Stevens 2009).
Number of genera

One Neotropical genus: Typha.

Status
  • Typha is native to the Americas and widespread in the Neotropics.
Literature
Important literature

Stevens, P.F. (2001 onwards). Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. Version 9, February 2009 [and more or less continuously updated since]. http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/research/APweb/.

Stevenson, D.W. 1998. Typhaceae, pp. 457-461. In: K. Kubitzki (ed.) The families and genera of vascular plants volume 4. Springer-Verlag. Berlin.

[FWTA]

Typhaceae, F.N. Hepper. Flora of West Tropical Africa 3:1. 1968

Habit
Marsh, or lake herbs with creeping rhizomes, often tall, with simple stems submerged at the base
Leaves
Leaves mostly radical, elongated-linear, rather thick and spongy
Flowers
Flowers unisexual, anemophilous, very numerous, densely crowded on a terminal spadix, the male and female similar, the male above, the female below, the two sexes contiguous or remote from each other Female flowers: ovary 1-locular, stipitate Male flowers: stamens 2-5; anthers linear, basifixed
Perianth
Perianth of very slender jointed threads or elongated spathulate scales mixed with imperfect ovaries or stamens
Male
Male flowers: stamens 2-5; anthers linear, basifixed
Female
Female flowers: ovary 1-locular, stipitate
Fruits
Fruit dry, at length splitting
Seeds
Seed with a striate testa and mealy endosperm
[FTEA]

Typhaceae, D. M. Napper. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1971

Habit
Rhizomatous herbs with erect unbranched stems
Leaves
Leaves broadly linear to narrowly elliptic with a long open sheathing base
Inflorescences
Inflorescence spike-like, protandrous with contiguous or remote superposed spikes, the upper ?, the lower ?, each with a usually caducous bract at the base, sometimes interrupted by similar bracts
Flowers
Male flowers reduced to 2–5 stamens; flowers interspersed with linear to laciniate bracteoles Female flowers sterile and fertile together, with or without a subtending bracteole, 1–many on crowded short lateral stumps or “pedicels”; fertile flowers with numerous long perigonous hairs and a long-stalked unilocular 1-ovulate ovary bearing a linear style and linear or lanceolate stigma; gynoecium of the sterile flowers modified to a stout clavate carpodium with a terminal reduced style
Male
Male flowers reduced to 2–5 stamens; flowers interspersed with linear to laciniate bracteoles
Female
Female flowers sterile and fertile together, with or without a subtending bracteole, 1–many on crowded short lateral stumps or “pedicels”; fertile flowers with numerous long perigonous hairs and a long-stalked unilocular 1-ovulate ovary bearing a linear style and linear or lanceolate stigma; gynoecium of the sterile flowers modified to a stout clavate carpodium with a terminal reduced style
Fruits
Fruit a 1-seeded follicle dehiscing longitudinally

Images

Typhaceae Juss. appears in other Kew resources:

First published in Gen. Pl. [Jussieu] 25. 1789 [4 Aug 1789] (as "Typhae") (1789)

Accepted by

  • APG IV (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/boj.12385

Sources

Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of West Tropical Africa
Flora of West Tropical Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Neotropikey
Milliken, W., Klitgard, B. and Baracat, A. (2009 onwards), Neotropikey - Interactive key and information resources for flowering plants of the Neotropics.
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0