1. Family: Fabaceae Lindl.
    1. Neptunia Lour.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Tropics & Subtropics.

    [LOWO]

    Legumes of the World. Edited by G. Lewis, B. Schrire, B. MacKinder & M. Lock. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. (2005)

    Note

    The tribe Mimoseae (sensu Bentham, 1875) is retained here simply as a matter of convenience. All recent phylogenetic analyses indicate that Ingeae and Acacieae are derived from within Mimoseae (Chappill & Maslin, 1995; Käss & Wink, 1996; Luckow et al., 2000; Bruneau et al., 2001; Luckow et al., 2003; Herendeen et al., 2003a), making it a paraphyletic group at best. The most recent studies indicate that it may not even be monophyletic with respect to the Caesalpinioideae (Luckow et al., 2000; Bruneau et al., 2001; Luckow et al., 2003).

    Although the outline of a new tribal classification of the mimosoids is emerging, we await better-supported phylogenies (based on more extensive data) before formalising new stable and useful groups. Some parts of the classification proposed here are better supported than others. Notably, the basal branches in Fig. 24 are poorly supported in most analyses and the relationships among the groups are likely to change as we acquire more data. As presently indicated (Luckow et al., 2003), the type genus Mimosa falls within the derived Piptadenia group which is in turn sister, and basally branching, to elements of Acacia and Ingeae (Fig. 24). A more narrowly circumscribed Mimoseae sens. strict. will thus leave the bulk of Mimoseae sens. lat. (i.e., as treated here) in need of new tribal allocation. The most conspicuous difference between the classification presented here and that of Lewis & Elias (1981) is the inclusion of tribe Parkieae within Mimoseae. The former was circumscribed based on imbricate aestivation of the calyx, and was considered the basal tribe within the Mimosoideae (Elias, 1981a). Recent phylogenetic analyses (Chappill & Maslin, 1995; Luckow et al., 2000; Bruneau et al., 2001; Luckow et al., 2003; Herendeen et al., 2003a), indicate that the two genera in the Parkieae, Parkia and Pentaclethra, are not sister taxa (Fig. 24). Pentaclethra is nested within Mimoseae in Luckow et al. (2000), but is either sister to caesalpinioid taxa in Bruneau et al. (2001) and Herendeen et al. (2003a), or part of a basal polytomy with Mimoseae and caesalpinioid taxa (Luckow et al., 2003). Both Parkia and Pentaclethra are included in the tribe Mimoseae pending additional data and tribal recircumscription.

    Recent work (Luckow et al., submitted a) also indicates that the monospecific tribe Mimozygantheae should be subsumed in the Mimoseae near Piptadeniopsis and Prosopidastrum, currently in the Prosopis group. Otherwise, the informal groups within the Mimoseae recognised by Lewis & Elias (1981) are relatively well-supported by current phylogenies and only a few departures have been made from their system. Where relationships are either poorly supported or unresolved, the classification of Lewis & Elias (1981) is retained. The Xylia group is dismantled and the Adenanthera group recircumscribed to include Calpocalyx and Xylia . Desmanthus has been removed from the Dichrostachys group, as has Neptunia, in agreement with recent molecular and morphological phylogenetic studies (Harris et al., 1994; Hughes, 1998; Luckow, 1995, 1997). A new group is erected to accommodate Piptadeniastrum which is well separated from Newtonia in the most recent phylogeny (Luckow et al., 2000; 2003), and another to accommodate Cylicodiscus, which is more closely related to the clade containing the Prosopis, Leucaena, Dichrostachys, and Piptadenia groups than it is to the Newtonia group. Neptunia is well supported as sister to Prosopidastrum in recent analyses (Luckow et al., 2003) and is included in the Prosopis group here. Relationships of genera in the Prosopis group are not resolved, but the group is retained here as there is no evidence that it is not monophyletic. Genera newly described since 1981 include Alantsilodendron, Calliandropsis, Kanaloa, and Lemurodendron. Alantsilodendron and Calliandropsis are placed in the Dichrostachys group, and Kanaloa in the Leucaena group based on phylogenetic analyses (Hughes, 1998; Luckow, 1997; Luckow et al., 2000). Lemurodendron is tentatively included in the Newtonia group as suggested by Villiers & Guinet (1989). As treated here the Mimoseae comprises 40 genera and from (859)– 869–(879) species.

    Placed in a clade with Prosopidastrum (Luckow et al., 2003) and so included in the Prosopis group
    Habit
    Herbs
    Ecology
    Tropical to warm temperate open woodland, wooded grassland and grassland, floodplains, swamps and other wet areas
    Distribution
    Australia (4 endemic spp.), Papuasia through Malesia to Indo-China (2 spp.); India and Sri Lanka (1 sp.), 1 sp. pantropical; New World from S USA (1 sp.), Mexico, C America, Caribbean south to Paraguay and N Argentina (3 spp., one also introduced in S Asia)
    [FZ]

    Leguminosae, J.P.M. Brenan. Flora Zambesiaca 3:1. 1970

    Habit
    Herbs, aquatic or terrestrial, unarmed.
    Leaves
    Leaves 2-pinnate, pinnae each with several to numerous pairs of leaflets.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences solitary and axillary, of globose to ellipsoid heads.
    Flowers
    Flowers in upper part of head hermaphrodite, in lower part of head male or neuter with ± elongate staminodes.
    Calyx
    Calyx 5-toothed.
    Corolla
    Petals 5, free or ± united.
    Stamens
    Stamens 5 or 10, free, all fertile in hermaphrodite flowers; anthers glandular or not at the apex.
    Fruits
    Pods clustered, membranous to subcoriaceous, oblong to subcircular, compressed, not contorted or spiral, dehiscent.
    Seeds
    Seeds ± compressed, oblong-ellipsoid to obovoid, smooth.
    [FTEA]

    Leguminosae, J. B. Gillett, R. M. Polhill & B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1971

    Habit
    Herbs, aquatic or terrestrial, unarmed
    Leaves
    Leaves bipinnate; pinnae each with several to numerous pairs of leaflets
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences of globose to ellipsoid heads which are solitary and axillary
    Flowers
    Flowers in upper part of head hermaphrodite, in lower part of head ♂ or neuter with ± elongate staminodes
    Calyx
    Calyx 5-toothed
    Corolla
    Corolla-lobes 5, free or ± united
    Stamens
    Stamens 5 or 10, free, all fertile in hermaphrodite flowers; anthers glandular or not at apex
    Fruits
    Pods clustered, membranaceous to subcoriaceous, oblong to suborbicular, compressed, not contorted or spiral, dehiscent
    Seeds
    Seeds ± compressed, oblong-ellipsoid to obovoid, smooth.
    [LOWO]
    Use
    Neptunia oleracea Lour. is often a troublesome weed (with sensitive leaves); used for medicine, human food (young stems, leaves and pods are eaten) and as soil binders; produced as a cash crop in SE Asia

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Alabama, Andaman Is., Angola, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Aruba, Assam, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Benin, Bolivia, Borneo, Botswana, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil West-Central, Burkina, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Central African Repu, Chad, Colombia, Congo, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, East Himalaya, Ecuador, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Florida, French Guiana, Galápagos, Gambia, Ghana, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, India, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Jawa, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Laccadive Is., Laos, Leeward Is., Lesser Sunda Is., Malawi, Malaya, Maldives, Mali, Maluku, Mauritania, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nepal, Netherlands Antilles, New Guinea, New South Wales, Nicaragua, Nicobar Is., Niger, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Oklahoma, Panamá, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Puerto Rico, Queensland, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Australia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Suriname, Taiwan, Tanzania, Texas, Thailand, Togo, Trinidad-Tobago, Uganda, Uruguay, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Vietnam, West Himalaya, Western Australia, Windward Is., Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Arkansas, China Southeast, Mexican Pacific Is.

    Neptunia Lour. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Mar 30, 1983 Ule, E. [7763], Roraima K000849262
    Agra, M.F. [599], Paraíba K000849261

    First published in Fl. Cochinch.: 653 (1790)

    Accepted by

    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • Benth. in Trans. Linn. Soc. 30: 383 (1875).
    • —F.T.A. 2: 333
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Fl. Cochinch.: 653 (1790).
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Fl. Coch.: 653 (1790)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Legumes of the World Online
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0