1. Family: Fabaceae Lindl.
    1. Pisum L.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Medit. to Afghanistan.

    [LOWO]

    Legumes of the World. Edited by G. Lewis, B. Schrire, B. MacKinder & M. Lock. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. (2005)

    Note

    Widely known as the Vicieae, the correct name for this tribe is Fabeae (see Greuter et al., 2000, Articles 19.4 and 18.5), since it must be based on the name of the type genus of the family, Faba Mill. (= Vicia L.). This does not reflect on the names Leguminosae and Papilionoideae (see introduction) whose use as alternative names for Fabaceae and Faboideae respectively is sanctioned in the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (Greuter et al., 2000; Article 18.5).

    Fabeae is a well-defined tribe, forming part of the ‘temperate epulvinate series’ (Polhill, 1981a). It contains five genera, of which two (Lathyrus and Vicia) are large. The tribe as a whole is centred in the Irano-Turanian Region of the E Mediterranean. Lathyrus and Vicia, each with about 160 species, have very similar distributions centred on the Mediterranean but extending throughout Europe, N Asia and N and tropical E Africa, with secondary centres in N America and S America. One large group of species, some in Vicia and some in Lathyrus, are superficially extremely similar and can only be distinguished by technical characters of the style. This group was in the past recognised as the genus Orobus L. (Kupicha, 1981a). Lens has 4–6 species and Pisum 2 or 3. Both include important crop plants and, perhaps because of this, their taxonomy is controversial. Both are E Mediterranean genera with outlying species. The monospecific genus Vavilovia, sometimes included in Pisum, is confined to montane habitats in W Asia.

    Kupicha (1981a) was unable to suggest a closest relative of the tribe; she had previously (Kupicha, 1977) excluded Abrus (Abreae) and Cicer (Cicereae) from it. The morphological analysis of Chappill (1995) placed Fabeae (as Vicieae) in a group with Astragalinae, Galeginae, Loteae, Coronilleae, Cicereae and Trifolieae. Doyle (1995) included these subtribes and tribes (except Loteae and Coronilleae) in a clade characterised by the loss of the inverted repeat (the IRLC), with Carmichaelieae (here included in Galegeae sens. lat.), Cicereae, Galegeae, Hedysareae, some Millettieae, and Trifolieae. More recent work (Wojciechowski et al., 2000) places Fabeae at the heart of a Vicioid clade that includes Trifolieae (q.v.) and Cicereae as well as Galega — a fragment of a paraphyletic Galegeae. Fabeae (as Vicieae) appears embedded within Trifolieae as sister to Trifolium.

    In the analyses of Steele & Wojciechowski (2003) and Wojciechowski et al. (2004), Fabeae (as Vicieae) forms a clearly monophyletic group in which Pisum is sister to Lathyrus, and these two emerge as a well supported clade within a paraphyletic Vicia. A subclade of Vicia species is sister to Lens. Within Lathyrus, the cpDNA restriction site phylogeny of Asmussen & Liston (1998) agrees in general with dividing the genus into sections previously recognised using classical taxonomic methodology (e.g., Kupicha, 1983).

    The publications of the Vicieae Database Project (e.g., Allkin et al., 1983 a & b) provide basic information for the whole tribe. In this treatment the Fabeae is considered to comprise 5 genera and c. 329 species (Fig. 57).

    The taxonomy is complicated with both inter- and infraspecific classification disputed
    Habit
    Herbs (often climbing)
    Ecology
    Mediterranean grassland and shrubland; weedy
    Distribution
    Mediterranean and W Asia; cultivated worldwide in temperate regions
    [FZ]

    Leguminosae, various authors. Flora Zambesiaca 3:7. 2003

    Habit
    Annual or perennial herbs, spreading or climbing by means of tendrils.
    Leaves
    Leaves paripinnate, the rhachis terminating in a prehensile tendril or a bristle; leaflets in 1–3 pairs; stipules small to very large, foliaceous, semicordate, usually equalling or exceeding the leaflets, toothed at least towards the base.
    Flowers
    Flowers solitary or in few-flowered axillary racemes; bracts small, deciduous; bracteoles absent.
    Calyx
    Calyx 5-partite; tube asymmetrical, slightly gibbous at the base; teeth subequal or the upper 2 shorter and broader.
    Corolla
    Corolla purple, pink or white, medium-sized to large; standard broadly ovate to suborbicular with a short broad claw; wings shorter than the standard, adhering to the keel, with the lamina asymmetrical, ascending, and the claw curved; keel shorter than the wings, oblong-falcate, often with a wing on the outer upper surface.
    Stamens
    Vexillary stamen free, at least in part; filament sheath truncate; filaments somewhat dilated towards the apex; anthers uniform.
    Pistil
    Style dorsally compressed, folded longitudinally with margins meeting abaxially, pubescent on the upper side towards the apex; stigma capitate.
    Fruits
    Pod oblong, little compressed, dehiscent.
    Seeds
    Seeds globular, numerous, with a slender aril.
    [LOWO]
    Use
    Pisum sativum L. (common or garden pea) is a major pulse and green vegetable crop, with many cultivars in the trade; also grown as fodder, ground cover, green manure, hay and silage

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Bulgaria, Corse, Cyprus, East Aegean Is., Egypt, France, Greece, Iran, Iraq, Italy, Krym, Lebanon-Syria, Libya, Morocco, North Caucasus, Palestine, Portugal, Romania, Sardegna, Sicilia, Sinai, Spain, Transcaucasus, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Yugoslavia

    Introduced into:

    Alabama, Altay, Amur, Andaman Is., Assam, Austria, Baltic States, Bangladesh, Belarus, Belgium, Buryatiya, Canary Is., Cayman Is., Central European Rus, Chita, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, Dominican Republic, East European Russia, East Himalaya, Ethiopia, Fiji, Haiti, Illinois, India, Irkutsk, Kamchatka, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Khabarovsk, Kirgizstan, Korea, Krasnoyarsk, Laos, Madeira, Magadan, Mexico Southwest, Mongolia, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, New South Wales, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, North European Russi, Northwest European R, Pakistan, Primorye, Puerto Rico, Rwanda, Sakhalin, South Australia, South European Russi, South Georgia, Sri Lanka, Trinidad-Tobago, Tuva, Uganda, Uzbekistan, Vermont, Vietnam, West Himalaya, West Siberia, Yakutskiya, Yemen

    Pisum L. appears in other Kew resources:

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 727 (1753)

    Literature

    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 324 (1754).
    • Sp. Pl.: 727 (1753)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Legumes of the World Online
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0