1. Proteaceae Juss.

    1. This family is accepted.

[FWTA]

Proteaceae, Hutchinson and Dalziel. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:1. 1954

Habit
Trees or shrubs
Leaves
Leaves alternate, rarely opposite, simple or much divided; stipules absent
Flowers
Flowers (in our species) in a bracteate capitulum or elongated spike
Calyx
Calyx petaloid, tetramerous, valvate, tubular in bud, one segment soon splitting away from the others and releasing the style, three segments remaining united
Androecium
Stamens 4; anthers opposite the calyx-lobes, subsessile, 2-celled, opening lengthwise
Nectaries
Hypogynous scales often present
Gynoecium
Ovary superior, 1-celled; style long, simple; ovule 1 (in our species), subpendulous
Fruits
Fruit a nut, densely bearded, crowned by the persistent style
Seeds
Seed without endosperm
[NTK]

Prance, G.T. (2009). Neotropical Proteaceae.

Morphology
Description

Trees or shrubs. Leaves alternate , opposite or whorled , simple , pinnatifid , pinnate or bipinnate usually coriaceous , exstipulate . Inflorescence simple or compound , axillary or terminal , racemose or paniculate. Flowers usually actinomorphic , bisexual , solitary or paired in axils of bracts, rarely ebracteate. Perianth of 4 valvate , free or variously united tepals; each with a slightly expanded limb . Stamens 4, usually all fertile, opposite the tepals; filaments partly or wholly adnate to tepals, rarely free . Hypogynous glands usually present, 4, scale-like or fleshy , free or fused. Gynoecium of 1 carpel . Ovary superior , rarely perigynous , sessile or stipitate, 1-locular; ovules 1-many, variously inserted; style simple often persistent , often with the apex expanded as a pollen presenter; stigma small, terminal or subterminal. Fruit dehiscent or indehiscent , a woody or coriaceous follicle , drupe or an achene . Seeds 1 to many, usually endospermic.

General Description
Notes on delimitation
  • Variously placed in earlier systems and often in Rosidae near to Elaeagnaceae. Others placed the family near to the Santalales, but usually considered basal.
  • The Angiosperm Phylogeny Group place the family in a basal order Proteales where it is close to Platanaceae and Nelumbonaceae, both of which differ considerably morphologically, but many genes support this grouping.
Number of genera

Five Neotropical genera:

  • Euplassa Salisb.
  • Oreocallis R.Br.
  • Orites R.Br.
  • Panopsis Salis.
  • Roupala Aubl.
Status
  • All five genera are native and four are endemic to the Neotropics; Orites also occurs in Australia.
General notes
  • The leaves are often extremely variable and in species of Roupala are compound when young and simple when mature in some species, others may be consistently simple or compound.
Distribution
Distribution in the Neotropics
  • A largely southern hemisphere family consisting of 79 genera and ca. 1,700 species with Australia and southern Africa as its centers of greatest diversity.
  • Eight genera and 84 species occur in the Americas distributed from Mexico to Chile and Argentina of which five occur in the tropical region.
  • In the Americas the greatest diversity is in the Andes and eastern Brazil.
Diagnostic
Distinguishing characters (always present)
  • Secondary pollen presentation.
  • 4-merous flowers.
  • Perianth uniseriate of tepals.
  • Swollen petiole bases common.
  • Winged seeds common in all genera except Panopsis Salisb.
Useful tips for generic identification

Key to genera of Neotropical Proteaceae

1. Adult leaves pinnate... 2
1. Adult leaves entire, simple or pinnatifid, never pinnate... 3

2. Fruit a follicle, seeds winged; style erect... Roupala
2. Fruit indehiscent, seeds not winged; style curved ... Euplassa

3. Fruit indehiscent with thick hard or fleshy pericarp, seeds not winged... Panopsis
3. Fruit a dehiscent follicle, the pericarp thin not fleshy, seeds winged... 4

4. Hypogynous glands 4; ovules 2; flowers actinomorphic or only weakly diagnonally zygomorphic... 5
4. Hypogynous glands 3 lobed, broad, truncate; ovules many; flowers zygomorphic... Oreocallis

5. Ovules ascending; young inflorescences conical due to overlapping bracts subtending flower pairs; seedlateral to wing ... Orites
5. Ovules pendulous; young inflorescences not conical; bracts subtending flower-pairs small; seed central to wing ... Roupala

Literature
Important literature

Plana, V. & Prance, G.T. 2004. A synopsis of the South American genus Euplassa (Proteaceae). Kew Bull. 59:27-45.

Prance, G.T. & Plana, V. 1998. The American Proteaceae.  Australian Systematic Botany 11: 287-299.

Prance, G.T., Edwards, K.S., Plana, V. & Pennington, R.T. 2008. Proteaceae. Flora Neotropica Monograph 100, 250 pages.

Sleumer, H. 1954. Proteaceae americanae. Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 76(2): 139-211.

[FZ]

Flora Zambesiaca. Vol. 9, Part 3. Polygonaceae-Myriaceae. Pope GV, Polhill RM, Martins ES. 2006.

Stamens
Stamens 4, fused to the perianth and (in the Flora Zambesiaca area) lying inside the limb, attached opposite the perianth segments, the filaments largely adnate to the perianth segments and the anthers free
Scales
Four small hypogynous scales often present on the receptacle between perianth and ovary
Ovary
Ovary superior, sessile or shortly stalked, often clothed with long hairs, unilocular with ovules variously numerous in 2 series, or 2, or solitary and orthotropous or amphitropous to anatropous; style (in the Flora Zambesiaca area) long, often exceeding the perianth, variously modified distally into a filiform to expanded pollen-presenter
Note
Two species of Macadamia are cultivated in Africa for their edible nuts, ‘Macadamia nuts’ or ‘Queensland nuts’. They are Australian shrubs to trees up to 10 m high with stiffly coriaceous leaves in whorls of 3 or 4 and whitish or pinkish flowers in spikes up to 30 cm long. M. integrifolia Maiden & Betche (‘M. ternifolia’ of some authors) has leaves in whorls of 3, the juvenile ones serrate but adult leaves usually entire or occasionally with up to 12 teeth on each side, ± cuneate at the base and with a petiole 4–15 mm long; the fruits are scarcely pubescent and usually do not dehisce on the tree. M. tetraphylla L.A.S. Johnson has leaves usually in whorls of 4, strongly serrate with 20–44 teeth on each side, the base rounded and petiole not exceeding 2 mm; the fruits are densely pubescent and usually dehisce on the tree. Both species are known to be cultivated in the Flora Zambesiaca area, but few specimens are available to determine which species is the more common. One collection of M. integrifolia from Mozambique, M: Quinta do Umbelúzi, 26 km W of Maputo (Lourenço Marques), 15.iv.1946, Gomes e Sousa 3428 (BR; COI; K), is said to be perhaps naturalized.
Distribution
A family of about 69 genera centred in the southern hemisphere and rather sparingly extending into the tropics, many genera being confined to either Australia or South Africa.
Habit
Trees, shrubs or suffrutices Trees, shrubs or suffrutices
Leaves
Leaves alternate or rarely opposite or verticillate, usually coriaceous, estipulate, entire to toothed or lobed or pinnate Leaves alternate or rarely opposite or verticillate, usually coriaceous, estipulate, entire to toothed or lobed or pinnate
Inflorescences
Inflorescence a raceme, spike or head Inflorescence a raceme, spike or head
Flowers
Flowers hermaphrodite or rarely (not in the Flora Zambesiaca area) dioecious, zygomorphic Flowers hermaphrodite or rarely (not in the Flora Zambesiaca area) dioecious, zygomorphic. Perianth 4-merous, the segments ± fused into a tube in bud but variously separating in flower, in the native genera differentiated into a swollen base, narrow claw and expanded terminal limb, with the tube splitting before the limb to release a loop of the style while the stigma remains enclosed in the limb
Perianth
Perianth 4-merous, the segments ± fused into a tube in bud but variously separating in flower, in the native genera differentiated into a swollen base, narrow claw and expanded terminal limb, with the tube splitting before the limb to release a loop of the style while the stigma remains enclosed in the limb
Androecium
Stamens 4, fused to the perianth and (in the Flora Zambesiaca area) lying inside the limb, attached opposite the perianth segments, the filaments largely adnate to the perianth segments and the anthers free
Nectaries
Four small hypogynous scales often present on the receptacle between perianth and ovary
Gynoecium
Ovary superior, sessile or shortly stalked, often clothed with long hairs, unilocular with ovules variously numerous in 2 series, or 2, or solitary and orthotropous or amphitropous to anatropous; style (in the Flora Zambesiaca area) long, often exceeding the perianth, variously modified distally into a filiform to expanded pollen-presenter
Fruits
Fruit a follicle, capsule, drupe or nut Fruit a follicle, capsule, drupe or nut.
[FTEA]

Proteaceae, R.K. Brummitt & Serena K. Marner. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1993

Habit
Trees, shrubs or suffrutices
Leaves
Leaves alternate or rarely opposite or verticillate, usually coriaceous, estipulate, entire to toothed or lobed or pinnate
Inflorescences
Inflorescence a raceme, spike or head
Flowers
Flowers ? or rarely (not in East Africa) dioecious, zygomorphic
Perianth
Perianth 4-merous, the segments ± fused into a tube in bud but variously separating in flower, in native genera differentiated into a swollen base, narrow claw and expanded terminal limb, with the tube splitting before the limb to release a loop of the style while the stigma remains enclosed in the limb
Androecium
Staments 4, fused to the perianth and (in Flora area) lying inside the limb, attached opposite the perianth-segments, the filaments largely adnate to the perianth-segments and the anthers free
Sterile Parts
Four small hypogynous scales often present on the receptacle between perianth and ovary
Gynoecium
Ovary superior, sessile or shortly stalked, often clothed with long hairs, 1-locular with ovules variously numerous in 2 series, or 2, or solitary and orthotropous or amphitropous to anatropous; style (in Flora area) long, often exceeding the perianth, variously modified distally into a filiform to expanded pollen-presenter
Fruits
Fruit a follicle, capsule, drupe or nut

Images

Proteaceae Juss. appears in other Kew resources:

First published in Gen. Pl. [Jussieu] 78. 1789 [4 Aug 1789] (as "Proteae") (1789)

Accepted by

  • APG IV (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/boj.12385

Sources

Flora Zambesiaca
Flora Zambesiaca
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of West Tropical Africa
Flora of West Tropical Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Neotropikey
Milliken, W., Klitgard, B. and Baracat, A. (2009 onwards), Neotropikey - Interactive key and information resources for flowering plants of the Neotropics.
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0