1. Family: Fabaceae Lindl.
    1. Dioclea Kunth

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Tropics.

    [LOWO]

    Legumes of the World. Edited by G. Lewis, B. Schrire, B. MacKinder & M. Lock. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. (2005)

    Note

    Previous accounts of the Phaseoleae by Baudet (1978) and Lackey (1981) recognised 90 and 84 genera and c. 1540 and 1480 species respectively in the tribe. In an equivalent, i.e. traditionally held view of Phaseoleae, 89 genera and (1554)–1567–(1580) species are treated here (Table 9; Fig. 47). Changes between Baudet (1978) and this treatment are that eleven genera are now in synonymy or have subsequently been placed in Millettieae, two genera have been transferred from Desmodieae and eight new genera have been added. Vigna has traditionally been thought to comprise some 150–200 species, but Vigna sens. strict. may contain fewer than 100.

    Recent molecular analyses of the tribe, however, have emphasised both the polyphyletic and paraphyletic nature of Phaseoleae as traditionally circumscribed (Bruneau & Doyle, 1990; Doyle & Doyle, 1993; Delgado Salinas et al., 1993; Bruneau et al., 1995; Doyle et al., 1997, 2000; Kajita et al., 2001; Goel et al., 2001; Lee & Hymowitz, 2001). This has required a radical realignment of elements of the phaseoloids (Table 9; Fig. 47), with at least two major clades being evident: Phaseoleae subtribes Diocleinae and Ophrestiinae which together with tribe Abreae are allied to the core-Millettieae (Fig. 45), and the remaining groups comprising a Phaseoleae sens. lat. clade. The rbcL phylogeny of Kajita et al. (2001) and the ITS analysis of Hu et al. (2002) are equivocal as to which clade subtribe Clitoriinae belongs. Phaseoleae sens. lat. also includes two traditionally independent tribes, the Desmodieae and Psoraleeae. Delimiting a recircumscribed Phaseoleae sens. strict is thus very problematic. A solution may be to recognise a broad tribe Phaseoleae, comprising the subtribes Kennediinae, Cajaninae, Phaseolinae and Glycininae, assorted basally branching genera, and tribes Desmodieae and Psoraleeae (both treated at subtribal level).

    Maxwell (in correspondence at the Kew Herbarium) considered the genus to comprise some 50 species. A difficult genus because of problems of species delimitation within Dioclea, and poorly delimited from neighbouring genera, e.g. Cratylia. A global review of the genus is necessary; the tribe Diocleinae together with Ophrestiinae and the genus Rhodopis (originally in the Erythrininae) are placed in a Millettioid sens. strict. group, somewhat removed from the Phaseoleae sens. lat. (Bruneau et al., 1995, Doyle et al., 2000). Maxwell & Taylor (2003) and Queiroz et al. (2003) find Dioclea to be polyphyletic. Dioclea sens. strict. is more closely allied, among others, to Cymbosema and the Bionia clade of Camptosema (Queiroz et al., 2003), while the Pachylobium clade of Dioclea is sister to a group of genera that includes these elements
    Habit
    Lianas or shrubs
    Ecology
    Tropical lowland rain forest, riverine or swamp forest and thicket; seasonally dry tropical to subtropical woodland, wooded grassland and scrub
    Distribution
    S America (c. 35 + spp. [mostly Brazil with a few extending to the Caribbean, C America and Mexico], c. 4-5 spp. also occurring widely in the Palaeotropics); Asia (c. 3-4 spp.)
    [LOWO]

    Legumes of the World. Edited by G. Lewis, B. Schrire, B. MacKinder & M. Lock. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. (2005)

    Habit
    Vines or lianas
    Ecology
    Tropical lowland rain forest and riverine forest
    Distribution
    Amazonian Brazil, Colombia, Peru, Venezuela; C America; Mexico
    Note
    See note under Dioclea; Zamora (2000) considers this genus to be synonymous with Dioclea

    Previous accounts of the Phaseoleae by Baudet (1978) and Lackey (1981) recognised 90 and 84 genera and c. 1540 and 1480 species respectively in the tribe. In an equivalent, i.e. traditionally held view of Phaseoleae, 89 genera and (1554)–1567–(1580) species are treated here (Table 9; Fig. 47). Changes between Baudet (1978) and this treatment are that eleven genera are now in synonymy or have subsequently been placed in Millettieae, two genera have been transferred from Desmodieae and eight new genera have been added. Vigna has traditionally been thought to comprise some 150–200 species, but Vigna sens. strict. may contain fewer than 100.

    Recent molecular analyses of the tribe, however, have emphasised both the polyphyletic and paraphyletic nature of Phaseoleae as traditionally circumscribed (Bruneau & Doyle, 1990; Doyle & Doyle, 1993; Delgado Salinas et al., 1993; Bruneau et al., 1995; Doyle et al., 1997, 2000; Kajita et al., 2001; Goel et al., 2001; Lee & Hymowitz, 2001). This has required a radical realignment of elements of the phaseoloids (Table 9; Fig. 47), with at least two major clades being evident: Phaseoleae subtribes Diocleinae and Ophrestiinae which together with tribe Abreae are allied to the core-Millettieae (Fig. 45), and the remaining groups comprising a Phaseoleae sens. lat. clade. The rbcL phylogeny of Kajita et al. (2001) and the ITS analysis of Hu et al. (2002) are equivocal as to which clade subtribe Clitoriinae belongs. Phaseoleae sens. lat. also includes two traditionally independent tribes, the Desmodieae and Psoraleeae. Delimiting a recircumscribed Phaseoleae sens. strict is thus very problematic. A solution may be to recognise a broad tribe Phaseoleae, comprising the subtribes Kennediinae, Cajaninae, Phaseolinae and Glycininae, assorted basally branching genera, and tribes Desmodieae and Psoraleeae (both treated at subtribal level).

    [LOWO]
    Use
    Common drift seeds; used as ornamentals, medicine and insecticides

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Andaman Is., Angola, Argentina Northeast, Bangladesh, Belize, Benin, Bismarck Archipelago, Bolivia, Borneo, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Cameroon, Central African Repu, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Ecuador, Equatorial Guinea, French Guiana, Gabon, Ghana, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, India, Ivory Coast, Jawa, Liberia, Madagascar, Malaya, Maluku, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Myanmar, New Guinea, Nicaragua, Nicobar Is., Nigeria, Panamá, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Queensland, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Solomon Is., Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Suriname, Thailand, Togo, Trinidad-Tobago, Venezuela, Windward Is., Zaïre

    Extinct in:

    Jamaica

    Introduced into:

    Ethiopia, Galápagos, Gilbert Is., Hawaii, Society Is., Tanzania, Tuamotu

    Dioclea Kunth appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 1, 1997 Gottsberger, I. [11-11274], Brazil K000930082
    Jan 1, 1997 Acevedo-Rodriguez, P. [8288], Brazil K000930083
    Jan 1, 1997 Acevedo-Rodriguez, P. [7949], Brazil K000930084
    Jan 1, 1986 Thomas, D.W. [4040], Cameroon K000087069
    Brazil 42845.000
    Drummond [3652], Tanzania 11463.000
    Hunt, D.R. [5438], Brazil K000930078
    Hunt, D.R. [5438], Brazil K000930079
    Hunt, D.R. [5963], Brazil K000930080
    Hunt, D.R. [5963], Brazil K000930081
    Ollerton, J. [108], Guyana 65303.000
    Cavalcanti, T.B. [1492], Brazil K000930086
    Arbo, M.M. [7424], Brazil K000930085
    Arbo, M.M. [7794], Brazil K000930087
    Laurênio, A. [302], Brazil K000930093
    Woodgyer, E.M. [PCD2217], Brazil K000930088
    Woodgyer, E.M. [PCD2217], Brazil K000930089
    Ribas, O.S. [7628], Brazil K000930096
    Mendonça, R.C. [4082], Brazil K000930095
    Dick, C. [129], Brazil K000930094
    Hamilton, W.D. [23], Brazil K000930091
    Hatschbach, G.G. [75412], Brazil K000930090
    Hatschbach, G.G. [64621], Brazil K000930092
    Hatschbach, G.G. [71166], Brazil K000930097

    First published in F.W.H.von Humboldt, A.J.A.Bonpland & C.S.Kunth, Nov. Gen. Sp. 6: 437 (1824)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R. (2000). World Checklist of Seed Plants Database in ACCESS D: 1-30141.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • —F.T.A. 2: 189.

    Sources

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Legumes of the World Online
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0