1. Family: Convolvulaceae Juss.
    1. Cuscuta L.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Cosmopolitan.

    [FTEA]

    Convolvulaceae, B. Verdcourt (East African Herbarium). Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1963

    Habit
    Twining herbaceous parasites, annual or rarely perennial in host-tissues; free living for a brief period after germination until attachment to the host isaccomplished
    Scale leaves
    Leaves reduced to scales
    Note
    Plant yellowish or reddish, practically devoid of chlorophyll, affixed to the host by means of haustoria
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences lax or compact cymose clusters; flowers sessile or shortly pedicelled
    Calyx
    Sepals 4–5, united at the base
    Corolla
    Corolla-lobes 4–5, united into a tube at the base
    Stamens
    Stamens 4–5, inserted at the throat and alternating with the corolla-lobes; a whorl of thin fringed scales opposite to and below the stamens is present in most species
    Ovary
    Ovary 2-locular, each loculus with 2 ovules
    Style
    Styles 2, free or united into a single column
    Stigma
    Stigmas capitate or linear
    Fruits
    Fruit a capsule, splitting round the base or remaining closed
    Seeds
    Seeds subglobose or angular, granular Embryo and seedling thread-like, without cotyledons.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Afghanistan, Alabama, Albania, Alberta, Algeria, Altay, Amur, Angola, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Argentina South, Arizona, Arkansas, Aruba, Assam, Austria, Bahamas, Baleares, Baltic States, Bangladesh, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, British Columbia, Bulgaria, Burundi, Buryatiya, California, Cameroon, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Central European Rus, Chad, Chile Central, Chile North, Chile South, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Chita, Colombia, Colorado, Connecticut, Corse, Costa Rica, Cuba, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Delaware, Denmark, Denmark, District of Columbia, Dominican Republic, East Aegean Is., East European Russia, East Himalaya, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Finland, Finland, Florida, France, Free State, Galápagos, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Great Britain, Great Britain, Greece, Guatemala, Guinea, Gulf States, Guyana, Hainan, Haiti, Hawaii, Honduras, Hungary, Idaho, Illinois, India, Indiana, Inner Mongolia, Iowa, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Irkutsk, Italy, Italy, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Japan, Jawa, Kansas, Kazakhstan, Kentucky, Kenya, Khabarovsk, Kirgizstan, Korea, Krasnoyarsk, Kriti, Krym, KwaZulu-Natal, Laos, Lebanon-Syria, Leeward Is., Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Libya, Louisiana, Madagascar, Madeira, Maine, Malawi, Malaya, Manchuria, Manitoba, Maryland, Masachusettes, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Mongolia, Montana, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nansei-shoto, Nebraska, Nepal, Netherlands, Netherlands Antilles, Nevada, New Brunswick, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New South Wales, New York, Newfoundland, Nicaragua, Nigeria, North Carolina, North Caucasus, North Dakota, North European Russi, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Northwest European R, Norway, Norway, Nova Scotia, Ohio, Oklahoma, Ontario, Oregon, Pakistan, Palestine, Panamá, Paraguay, Pennsylvania, Peru, Poland, Portugal, Primorye, Prince Edward I., Puerto Rico, Qinghai, Queensland, Québec, Rhode I., Romania, Rwanda, Sakhalin, Sardegna, Saskatchewan, Saudi Arabia, Selvagens, Sicilia, Sierra Leone, Sinai, Socotra, Somalia, South Australia, South Carolina, South Dakota, South European Russi, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sumatera, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Sweden, Switzerland, Tadzhikistan, Taiwan, Tanzania, Tasmania, Tennessee, Texas, Thailand, Tibet, Transcaucasus, Trinidad-Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Turkmenistan, Tuva, Uganda, Ukraine, Uruguay, Utah, Uzbekistan, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Vermont, Victoria, Vietnam, Virginia, Washington, West Himalaya, West Siberia, West Virginia, Western Australia, Windward Is., Wisconsin, Wyoming, Xinjiang, Yakutskiya, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Belgium, Caroline Is., Cook Is., Czechoslovakia, Fiji, Germany, Lesotho, Line Is., Mauritius, Netherlands, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Niue, Poland, Réunion, Seychelles, Society Is., Tuamotu

    Cuscuta L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 1, 2007 Stannard, B.L. [H51588], Brazil K000945721
    Jan 1, 2007 Eiten, G. [6682], Brazil K000945719
    Jan 1, 2007 Moraes, J.C. [2046], Brazil K000945720
    Jan 1, 2007 Simão-Bianchini, R. [1241], Brazil K000945722
    Jan 1, 2006 Harley, R.M. [11409], Brazil K000945715
    Jan 1, 2006 Usteri, P.A. [138], Brazil K000945718
    New Guinea 33254.000
    Bolivia 44848.000
    Harley, R.M., Brazil 60194.000
    Harley, R.M. [21452], Brazil 72707.000
    Coode, M. [3988], Reunion 34271.000
    Coode, M. [4654], Mauritius 35405.000
    Styles, B.T. [348], Uganda 25694.034
    Stannard, B. [24209], Brazil 60225.000
    Stannard, B. [1748], Brazil 63266.000
    Rico, L. [1930], Morocco K000564886
    Eiten, G. [6528], Brazil K000945716
    Macedo, A. [4365], Brazil K000945717

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 124 (1753)

    Accepted by

    • Johnson, R.W. (2012). Convolvulaceae Australian Plant Census Council of Heads of Australian Herbaria.
    • Dobignard, A. & C. Chatelain in Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2011). Convolvulaceae Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 3: 331-351. Conservatoire et Jardin Botanique de la ville de Genève.
    • Staples, G. (with P. Traiperm) (2010). Convolvulaceae Flora of Thailand 10: 330-468. The Forest Herbarium, National Park, Wildlife and Plant Conservation Department, Bangkok.
    • Bianchini, R.S., Ferreira, P.P.A. in Forzza, R.C. et al. (2010). Convolvulaceae Lista de Espécies da Flora do Brasil Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro.
    • Getachew Aweke & S. Edwards (2006). 159B. Cuscutaceae Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 5: 232-234. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Thulin, M. et al. in Thulin, M. (ed.) (2006). Convolvulaceae Flora of Somalia 3: 221-258. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Deroin, T. (2001). Convolvulaceae Flore de Madagascar et des Comores (Plantes Vasculaires) 171: 11-287. Typographie Firmin-Didot et Cie., Paris.
    • Meeuse, A.D.J. & W.G. Welman (2000). Convolvulaceae Flora of Southern Africa 28: 1-138. Botanical Research Institute, Department of Agriculture.
    • Bosser, J. & H. Heine (2000). Fl. Mascar. Convolvulaceae Flore des Mascareignes 127: 1-63. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
    • Mill, R.R. (1999). Fl. Bhutan Cuscutaceae Flora of Bhutan 2(2): 862-865. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
    • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.
    • Fang, R.-Z. & Staples, G. (1995). Convolvulaceae Flora of China 16: 271-325. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Yamazaki, T. (1993). Fl. Japan Convolvulaceae Flora of Japan IIIa: 195-205. Kodansha Ltd., Tokyo.
    • Smith, A.C. in Smith, A.C. (1991). Fl. Vitiensis Nova Convolvulaceae Flora Vitiensis Nova. A new flora for Fiji (Spermatophytes only) 5: 41-69. Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai.
    • Gonçalves, M.L. (1987). Cuscutaceae Flora Zambesiaca 8(1): 130-135. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Heine, H. (1984). Fl. Nouv. Caléd. & Dépend. Convolvulaceae Flore de la Nouvelle-Calédonie et Dépendances 13: 1-91. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris.
    • Cronquist, A. et al. in Cronquist, A., et al. (1984). Convolvulaceae Intermountain Flora, vascular plants of the intermountain west, U.S.A. 4: 74-84. New York Botanical garden.
    • Austin, D. F. (1982). Flora of Ecuador 15: 3-99. Botanical Institute, University of Göteborg, Riksmuseum, Stockholm.
    • Allan, H.H. (1982). Fl. New Zealand Convolvulaceae-indigenous Flora of New Zealand 1: 835-841+1034. R.E.Owen, Government Printer, Wellington.
    • Austin, D.F. in Lasser, T. (1982). Convolvulaceae Flora de Venezuela 8(3): 15-226. Fundación Educación Ambiental.
    • Austin, D.F. (1980). Studies of the Florida Convolvulaceae -- III. Cuscuta Florida Scientist 43: 294-302.
    • Austin, D.F. in Dassanayake (ed.) (1980). Rev. Handb. Fl. Ceylon Convolvulaceae A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 1: 288-363. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
    • Plitmann, U. in Davis, P.H. (ed.) (1978). Cuscutaceae Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 6: 222-237. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
    • Fosberg, F.R. & Sachet. M.-H. (1977). Flora of Micronesia 3: Convolvulaceae Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 36: 1-34.
    • Manitz, H. (1976). Zur Lectotypisierung der Namen einiger Convolvulaceen- und Cuscutaceen-Gattung Feddes Repertorium 87: 311-317.
    • Austin, D.F. (1975). Convolvulaceae Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 62: 157-224.
    • Butkov, A.Y. (1974). Cuscuta in Fl. USSR Flora of the USSR 19: 30-57. Science Publishers, Inc.
    • Adams, C.D. in Adams, C.D. (1972). Flowering Plants of Jamaica: 601-614. University of the West Indies, Mona.
    • Valentine, D.H. et al. in Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1972). Convolvulaceae Flora Europaea 3: 74-83. Cambridge University Press.
    • Matuda, E. in Matuda, E. (1966). Las Convolvulaceas del estado de Mexico Las Convolvulaceae del estado de Mexico: 1-56. Govierno del Estado de Mexico, Direccion de Agricultura y Ganaderia.
    • Verdcourt, B. (1963). Convolvulaceae Flora of Tropical East Africa: 1-161.
    • Heine, H. in Hutchinson, J. & Dalziel, J.M. (1963). Convolvulaceae Flora of West Tropical Africa, second edition 2: 335-352 + 496. Crown Agents for Oversea Governments and Administrations.
    • Andrews, F.W. in Andrews, F.W. (1956). Convolvulaceae The Flowering Plants of the Sudan 3: 102-125. T.Buncle & co., LTD., Arbroath, Scotland.
    • Ooststroom, S.J. van & R.D. Hoogland (1953). Convolvulaceae Flora Malesiana 4: 388-512. Noordhoff-Kolff N.V., Djakarta.
    • Hill, A.W. & Sandwith, N. in Williams, R.O. (1953). Fl. Trinidad & Tobago Convolvs. Flora of Trinidad and Tobago 2(4): 210-240. Government Printing Office, Port-of-Spain.
    • Yuncker, T.G. (1932). The genus Cuscuta Memoirs of the Torrey Botanical Club 18: 113-331. New York Botanical Garden.
    • Gagnepain & Courchet in H. Lecomte (1915). Flore Indo-Chine Convolvulaceae Flore Générale de l'indo-Chine 4: 228-313.
    • Baker, J.G. & A.B. Rendle in Thiselton-Dyer, W.T. et al. (eds.) (1905). Convolvulaceae Flora of Tropical Africa 4(2): 62-206. Secretary of State for the Colonies.
    • Baker, J.G. & C.H. Wright in Thiselton Dyer, W.T. et al. (eds.) (1904). Convolvulaceae Flora Capensis 4(2): 45-87.
    • Clarke, C.B. in Hooker, J.D. (1883). Fl. Br. India Convolvulaceae Flora of British India 4: 179-228 + 734.
    • Progel, A. in Martius, C.F.P.von & auct. suc. (eds.) (1869). Cuscutaceae Flora Brasiliensis 7: 372-389 +406.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • Verdcourt in E. Afr. Agric. Journ. 18: 85 (1952).
    • Yuncker in Mem. Torrey Bot. Club 18: 2 (1932)
    • —F.T.A. 4, 2: 202
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Gen Pl. ed. 5: 60 (1754).
    • Sp. Pl. 1: 124 (1753).
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Verdc. in E. Afr. Agr. Journ. 18 : 85 (1953)
    • Yuncker in Mem. Torr. Bot. Club 18 : 121 (1932)
    • Bak. & Rendle in F.T.A. 4 (2) : 202 (1906)
    • L., Gen. Pl., ed. 5 : 60 (1754)
    • Sp. Pl. : 124 (1753)

    Sources

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Interactive Key to Seed Plants of Malesia and Indo-China
    The Malesian Key Group (2010) Interactive Key to Seed Plants of Malesia and Indo-China (Version 2.0, 28 Jul 2010) The Nationaal Herbarium Nederland Leiden and The Royal Botanic Gardens Kew

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0