1. Family: Solanaceae Juss.
    1. Capsicum L.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Mexico to Tropical America.

    [FZ]

    Flora Zambesiaca. Vol. 8, Part 4. Solanaceae. Gonçalves AE. 2005

    Habit
    Annual or short-lived perennial herbs, rarely shrubby, often ± divaricately branched, unarmed, glabrous or pubescent with simple eglandular or glandular hairs Annual or short-lived perennial herbs, rarely shrubby, often ± divaricately branched, unarmed, glabrous or pubescent with simple eglandular or glandular hairs.
    Leaves
    Leaves alternate, often 2 or 3 appearing together, mainly towards the ends of branches, abruptly or gradually tapering into a slightly winged petiole, mostly entire, to weakly dentate; minor leaves sometimes present Leaves alternate, often 2 or 3 appearing together, mainly towards the ends of branches, abruptly or gradually tapering into a slightly winged petiole, mostly entire, to weakly dentate; minor leaves sometimes present.
    Flowers
    Flowers 1–few, extra-axillary, leaf-opposed or appearing axillary, actinomorphic Flowers 1–few, extra-axillary, leaf-opposed or appearing axillary, actinomorphic.
    Calyx
    Calyx short, broadly campanulate to shortly tubular, 5(7)-ribbed, truncate, entire or 5(7)- or 10-dentate; teeth short, setaceous, often splitting at the sutures; in fruit usually slightly enlarged Calyx short, broadly campanulate to shortly tubular, 5(7)-ribbed, truncate, entire or 5(7)- or 10-dentate; teeth short, setaceous, often splitting at the sutures; in fruit usually slightly enlarged.
    Corolla
    Corolla purple to bluish, yellowish, white or greenish, sometimes spotted, rotate to widely campanulate; tube short; limb plicate, deeply 5(7)-lobed, the lobes never overlapping in bud, with induplicate-valvate or valvate aestivation Corolla purple to bluish, yellowish, white or greenish, sometimes spotted, rotate to widely campanulate; tube short; limb plicate, deeply 5(7)-lobed, the lobes never overlapping in bud, with induplicate-valvate or valvate aestivation.
    Stamens
    Stamens 5(7), variously inserted in the corolla tube, ± exserted; anthers oblong or cordate, connivent or free, basifixed, the ± parallel thecae dehiscing by longitudinal slits Stamens 5(7), variously inserted in the corolla tube, ± exserted; anthers oblong or cordate, connivent or free, basifixed, the ± parallel thecae dehiscing by longitudinal slits.
    Disc
    Disk inconspicuous or none Disk inconspicuous or none.
    Ovary
    Ovary 2(4)-locular; ovules hemicampylotropous, numerous in each locule, on a placenta adnate to the dissepiment or arising from the central angle of 2 dissepiments at the base.
    Style
    Style filiform.
    Stigma
    Stigma capitate or slightly dilated, obsoletely 3-lobed or difformed
    Pistil
    Ovary 2(4)-locular; ovules hemicampylotropous, numerous in each locule, on a placenta adnate to the dissepiment or arising from the central angle of 2 dissepiments at the base; style filiform; stigma capitate or slightly dilated, obsoletely 3-lobed or difformed.
    Fruits
    Fruit a berry, extremely variable in size and shape, seated on a flat or cupular calyx and greatly exceeding it, juiceless or somewhat juicy, incompletely 2–3(or rarely 1)-locular, sometimes with large air spaces in the locules, usually acrid. Fruit a berry, extremely variable in size and shape, seated on a flat or cupular calyx and greatly exceeding it, juiceless or somewhat juicy, incompletely 2–3(or rarely 1)-locular, sometimes with large air spaces in the locules, usually acrid
    Seeds
    Seeds numerous, small, flat, compressed, suborbicular or ± reniform, with thickened margin; testa reticulate-rugose or almost smooth; embryo strongly curved or circinnate, subperipheral in the abundant, fleshy endosperm; radicle terete, as wide as the semi-terete cotyledons. Seeds numerous, small, flat, compressed, suborbicular or ± reniform, with thickened margin; testa reticulate-rugose or almost smooth; embryo strongly curved or circinnate, subperipheral in the abundant, fleshy endosperm; radicle terete, as wide as the semi-terete cotyledons
    [FTEA]

    Solanaceae, Jennifer M Edmonds. Oliganthes, Melongena & Monodolichopus, Maria S. Vorontsova & Sandra Knapp. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2012

    Habit
    Annual or perennial herbs or slender shrubs, sometimes clambering
    Leaves
    Leaves alternate or opposite when one often smaller, stipulate
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences axillary to leaf-opposed, fasciculate with 2–8 flowers or solitary-flowered, pedicellate; flowers actinomorphic; pedicels erect though sometimes apically geniculate in flower, erect or recurved in fruit
    Calyx
    Calyx cyathiform to campanulate, often truncate, with 5(–10) lobes often prolonged through the calyx as prominent veins, slightly accrescent and persistent but not enlarged in fruit; sometimes with an annular thickening basally. Corolla campanulate-rotate to stellate with short tube and deeply lobed; lobes valvate in bud, usually spreading after anthesis
    Stamens
    Stamens 5, usually equal; filaments joined to corolla tube, sometimes by two conspicuous short, thick lateral basal appendages, glabrous; anthers connivent, basifixed, exserted. Ovary usually sessile, glabrous, bior tri-locular, ovules numerous; disc small or absent, annular; style filiform, often exserted; stigma capitate, globose, sometimes bilobed
    Fruits
    Fruit dryish or sub-fleshy berries, 2- to 3- locular with large mesocarpellar cells, erect or drooping
    Seeds
    Seeds rugose, reniform to suborbicular, compressed, numerous
    Note
    The literature and nomenclature surrounding these species, their varieties and cultivars is vast, complex and controversial with some authors still disagreeing over the treatment of various taxa, and even their common names. The history of their spread from the centres of origin to the rest of the world, and their early taxonomic treatments are given in Irish (1898), while Heiser & Smith (in Econ. Bot. 7: 214–227 (1953)), Heiser & Pickersgill (in Taxon 18: 277–283 (1969) & in Baileya 19: 151–156 (1975)) and D’Arcy & Eshbaugh (in Baileya 19: 93–105 (1974)) for example, all deal with successive treatments of the cultivated peppers and their complicated synonymy. The latest resumé of the generic taxonomy is given in Bosland & Zewdie (2001). These species display considerable variability in the shape and colour of their fruits, with the characteristic pungency being due to capsaicinoids, a mixture of seven phenolic amides or vanillilamides, which are unique to peppers (cf. Hunziker, 2001), and are concentrated in the seeds and inner surfaces of the fruits. Bosland & Zwedie (2001) found that capsaicinoid profiles were not consistent within species and therefore of limited use as chemotaxonomic identifiers. In addition to their pungent culinary value, these substances are also used medicinally - usually internally as a carminative and stimulant, and for flatulence and appetite loss, though they can cause skin irritation and blistering. A summary of the wide range of medicinal uses of these plants is given by Heiser (in Nightshades: 6–27 (1969)). Birds are thought to be immune from the pungent capsaicin in the fruit pods which prevents animals from eating them, but enhances dispersal by fruit-eating birds. The generic name, adapted from the Greek kapto, meaning to bite, refers to the hot taste of the fruits. The cultivated species are also widely consumed as a vegetable with the fruits providing a rich source of vitamins A and C, and occasionally grown as ornamentals. Though peppers rarely constitute an important commercial crop anywhere in Africa (Eshbaugh, 1983), in the US the sweet pepper crop in particular is very important commercially, with many varieties being grown ( cf. Heiser, 1969). Capsicum is an economically important genus whose species are major spice and vegetable crops throughout the world. They are universally known as peppers or as cayenne, chilli, sweet, green and red peppers and are probably the most important and widely consumed condiment. The introduction of Capsicum to Africa probably occurred through a combination of postColombian explorers, missionary work, colonial invasion, and trade ( cf. Eshbaugh, 1983); by the mid-1800’s there were reports of these species in various African countries. “Morogoro Chillies” otherwise known as ‘Habaneros’ or ‘Scotch Bonnets’, are apparently popular in East African cuisine, but these plants seem to be confined to cultivation. They are cultivars of C. chinense Jacq. and though they may occur as escapes in some regions, this species has not been encountered during this revision. Though some East African specimens have been identified as C. baccatum L., this species has not been positively identified from this region (see Excluded species, at the end of this genus). Hunziker (2001) considered that the genus comprised a natural assemblage of around 20 species and a few varieties, growing from Mexico to Central Argentina. Five of the species were domesticated, of which two, C. annuum and C. frutescens, are widely cultivated throughout Africa, while a third, C. baccatum has remained largely confined to South America, occasionally occurring as an introduction in Africa.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Bolivia, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Ecuador, El Salvador, Galápagos, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Nicaragua, Oman, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles

    Introduced into:

    Alabama, Aldabra, Algeria, Andaman Is., Angola, Assam, Austria, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Belize, Benin, Bermuda, Bismarck Archipelago, Borneo, Botswana, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canary Is., Cape Verde, Cayman Is., Central African Repu, Chad, Christmas I., Comoros, Congo, Cook Is., Djibouti, Dominican Republic, East Himalaya, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, French Guiana, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Gilbert Is., Greece, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Guyana, Haiti, Hawaii, India, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Jawa, Kazakhstan, Kazan-retto, Kenya, Korea, KwaZulu-Natal, Laos, Leeward Is., Madagascar, Madeira, Malawi, Maldives, Mali, Marquesas, Mauritius, Morocco, Mozambique, Mozambique Channel I, Myanmar, Nepal, Netherlands Antilles, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New South Wales, Nicobar Is., Niger, Nigeria, Niue, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Pakistan, Panamá, Philippines, Puerto Rico, Queensland, Rodrigues, Rwanda, Réunion, Samoa, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Society Is., Solomon Is., Somalia, Southwest Caribbean, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Suriname, Swaziland, Tadzhikistan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad-Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Turks-Caicos Is., Uganda, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Vietnam, West Himalaya, Windward Is., Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Capsicum L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Dec 1, 2003 Custodio Filho, A. [s.n.], Brazil K001073049
    Jul 4, 1905 Harley, R.M. [54171], Brazil K000788508
    Jul 4, 1905 Harley, R. [3445], Brazil K000788513
    Jul 4, 1905 Lucas, E.J. [667], Brazil K000788509
    Jul 4, 1905 Lucas, E.J. [667], Brazil K000788510
    Hinton, G.B. [11977], Mexico K000063193
    Taylor, N.P. [429], Mexico K000063190
    Matuda, E. [2406], Mexico K000063191
    Burchell, W.J. [2428], Brazil K001073046
    Burchell, W.J. [3628], Brazil K001073055
    Burchell, W.J. [3627], Brazil K001073056
    Dusén, P. [14437], Brazil K001073051
    Miers, J. [s.n.], Brazil K001073053
    Handro, O. [2206], Brazil K001073052
    Eggers, H.F.A. von [5302], Cuba K001073054
    Müller, F. [174], Mexico K000063192
    Sandeman, C. [2038], Brazil K001073058
    Prance, G.T. [9295], Brazil K001073050
    Glaziou, A.F.M. [8872], Brazil K001073044
    Glaziou, A.F.M. [11385], Brazil K001073045
    Glaziou, A.F.M. [12108], Brazil K001073047
    Glaziou, A.F.M. [4168], Brazil K001073048
    Röttler, J.P. [Cat. no. s.n.] K001132449
    s.coll. [Cat. no. s.n.] K001132442
    s.coll. [Cat. no. s.n.] K001132443
    s.coll. [Cat. no. s.n.] K001132444
    s.coll. [Cat. no. s.n.] K001132445
    s.coll. [Cat. no. s.n.] K001132446
    s.coll. [Cat. no. s.n.] K001132447
    s.coll. [Cat. no. s.n.] K001132448
    s.coll. [s.n.] K001073057

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 188 (1753)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • Smith & Heiser in Am. J. Bot. 38: 362 (1951).
    • —F.T.A. 4, 2: 250
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Hunziker, Gen. Solanacearum: 232 (2001).
    • Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 86 (1754).
    • Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 86 (1754).
    • Capsicum L., Sp. Pl.: 188 (1753)
    • Sp. Pl.: 188 (1753)
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Gen. Solanaceae: 232–244 (2001);
    • van den Berg et al. (eds), Solanaceae V: 179–185 (2001)
    • DeWitt & Bosland, Peppers of the World (1996);
    • Bothalia 14: 845–848 (1983);
    • 9th Rep. Missouri Bot. Gard.: 53–110 (1898);
    • Fingerhuth, Monogr. gen. capsici: 1–32 (1832);
    • Gen. Pl. ed. 5: 86 (1754);
    • Sp. Pl. 1: 188 (1753)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0