1. Family: Fabaceae Lindl.
    1. Calopogonium Desv.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Mexico, S. America.

    [FZ]

    Leguminosae, B. Mackinder, R. Pasquet, R. Polhill & B. Verdcourt. Flora Zambesiaca 3:5. 2001

    Habit
    Herbaceous or woody climbers or trailers.
    Leaves
    Leaves pinnately 3-foliolate; stipels present.
    Flowers
    Flowers blue or violet, small, in fascicles arranged in short to long axillary nodose pseudoracemes, or in axillary subsessile fascicles; bracts and bracteoles small, deciduous.
    Calyx
    Calyx campanulate or shortly tubular, 5-lobed, the upper pair free or ± connate to form a 2-toothed lip.
    Corolla
    Standard obovate, auriculate at the base, the auricles inflexed; wings narrow, adhering to the obtuse keel.
    Stamens
    Vexillary stamen free; anthers mostly 8–9, all similar.
    Pistil
    Ovary sessile, many-ovuled; style filiform or subulate, usually ± incurved, glabrous or pubescent; stigma terminal, capitate.
    Fruits
    Pods linear or linear-oblong, ± compressed, 2-valved, dehiscent, mostly septate between the seeds, the outer surface transversely furrowed, giving the pod the appearance that it might break into segments.
    Seeds
    Seeds compressed-globose or oblong.
    [FTEA]

    Leguminosae, J. B. Gillett, R. M. Polhill & B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1971

    Habit
    Herbaceous or woody climbers or trailers
    Leaves
    Leaves pinnately 3-foliolate; stipels present
    Flowers
    Flowers blue or violet, small, in fascicles arranged in short to long axillary nodose pseudo-racemes, or in axillary subsessile fascicles; bracts and bracteoles small, deciduous
    Calyx
    Calyx campanulate or shortly tubular, 5-lobed, the upper pair free or ± connate to form a 2-toothed lip
    Corolla
    Standard obovate, auriculate at the base, the auricles inflexed; wings narrow, adhering to the obtuse keel
    Stamens
    Vexillary stamen free; anthers mostly 8–9, all similar
    Pistil
    Ovary sessile, many-ovuled; style filiform or subulate, usually ± incurved, glabrous or pubescent; stigma terminal, capitate
    Fruits
    Pods linear or linear-oblong, ± compressed, 2-valved, dehiscent, mostly septate between the seeds, the outer surface transversely furrowed, giving the pod the appearance that it might break into segments
    Seeds
    Seeds compressed-globose or oblong.
    [LOWO]

    Legumes of the World. Edited by G. Lewis, B. Schrire, B. MacKinder & M. Lock. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. (2005)

    Habit
    Herbs or scandent subshrubs
    Ecology
    Seasonally dry tropical and subtropical forest, woodland or thicket, often on margins, usually near rivers or swamps, or in bushland, shrubland and disturbed grassy areas
    Distribution
    America (Mexico, C America and Caribbean to Paraguay and Argentina). 1 sp. widely introduced in the Palaeotropics
    Note
    Calopogonium and Pachyrhizus were traditionally placed in the Diocleinae, but molecular evidence (Bruneau et al., 1995; Doyle et al., 2000) puts these genera in the Glycininae; Lee & Hymowitz (2001) place Calopogonium sister to Cologania, while Doyle et al. (2003) resolved Calopogonium as sister to Neonotonia and Teyleria, and these three as sister to Cologania

    Previous accounts of the Phaseoleae by Baudet (1978) and Lackey (1981) recognised 90 and 84 genera and c. 1540 and 1480 species respectively in the tribe. In an equivalent, i.e. traditionally held view of Phaseoleae, 89 genera and (1554)–1567–(1580) species are treated here (Table 9; Fig. 47). Changes between Baudet (1978) and this treatment are that eleven genera are now in synonymy or have subsequently been placed in Millettieae, two genera have been transferred from Desmodieae and eight new genera have been added. Vigna has traditionally been thought to comprise some 150–200 species, but Vigna sens. strict. may contain fewer than 100.

    Recent molecular analyses of the tribe, however, have emphasised both the polyphyletic and paraphyletic nature of Phaseoleae as traditionally circumscribed (Bruneau & Doyle, 1990; Doyle & Doyle, 1993; Delgado Salinas et al., 1993; Bruneau et al., 1995; Doyle et al., 1997, 2000; Kajita et al., 2001; Goel et al., 2001; Lee & Hymowitz, 2001). This has required a radical realignment of elements of the phaseoloids (Table 9; Fig. 47), with at least two major clades being evident: Phaseoleae subtribes Diocleinae and Ophrestiinae which together with tribe Abreae are allied to the core-Millettieae (Fig. 45), and the remaining groups comprising a Phaseoleae sens. lat. clade. The rbcL phylogeny of Kajita et al. (2001) and the ITS analysis of Hu et al. (2002) are equivocal as to which clade subtribe Clitoriinae belongs. Phaseoleae sens. lat. also includes two traditionally independent tribes, the Desmodieae and Psoraleeae. Delimiting a recircumscribed Phaseoleae sens. strict is thus very problematic. A solution may be to recognise a broad tribe Phaseoleae, comprising the subtribes Kennediinae, Cajaninae, Phaseolinae and Glycininae, assorted basally branching genera, and tribes Desmodieae and Psoraleeae (both treated at subtribal level).

    [LOWO]
    Use
    Used as fodder and cover crops; C. mucunoides Desv. is widely used as a green manure; also a weedy escape

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Argentina Northeast, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Leeward Is., Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Nicaragua, Panamá, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico, Suriname, Trinidad-Tobago, Venezuela, Windward Is.

    Introduced into:

    Andaman Is., Angola, Bangladesh, Benin, Bismarck Archipelago, Borneo, Burkina, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Central African Repu, Chad, Chagos Archipelago, China South-Central, China Southeast, Christmas I., Congo, Cook Is., Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Hainan, India, Ivory Coast, Jawa, Kazan-retto, Kenya, Laos, Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaya, Mali, Maluku, Nauru, Nepal, New Caledonia, New Guinea, Nigeria, Northern Territory, Philippines, Queensland, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Solomon Is., Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Taiwan, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Vietnam, Zaïre

    Calopogonium Desv. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Glaziou [8641], Brazil K000931112
    Kanu, K.M.T. et al. [9], Sierra Leone K000023472

    First published in Ann. Sci. Nat. (Paris) 9: 423 (1826)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • in Ann. Sci. Nat., sér. 1, 9: 423 (1826).
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • in Ann. Sci. Nat., Paris 9: 423 (1826).
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • in Ann. Sci. Nat., sér. 1, 9: 423 (1826)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Legumes of the World Online
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0