1. Family: Verbenaceae J.St.-Hil.
    1. Genus: Verbena L.
      1. Verbena litoralis Kunth

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Mexico to S. Tropical America.

    [FZ]

    Flora Zambesiaca. Vol 8, Pt 7. Avicenniaceae, R. Fernandes. Nesogenaceae, M.A. Diniz. Verbenaceae, R. Fernandes. Lamiaceae, R. Fernandes. 2005.

    General
    Perennial herb or sometimes a shrub 0.2–2(2.10 m) tall
    Stem
    Stem erect or suberect, branched above, 4-angled, with whitish angles and flat faces, somewhat constricted just below each node, glabrous or sparsely hispid with short tubercle-based hairs, sometimes ± hirsute in the upper part
    Leaves
    Leaves 2–5(11) cm long and 1–2 cm wide, ovate, rhombic.ovate, spathulate or oblanceolate, acute at the apex, tapering to the base into a narrow petiole, or subsessile, not amplexicaul, serrate to double serrate on the margin, the teeth sometimes obtuse; lamina stiff, scabrid with sparse short appressed antrorse tubercle-based hairs on both surfaces, the bristles more numerous on the lower surface particularly on the venation; midrib and nervation slightly impressed above, raised beneath; the upper leaves up to 5 × 1 cm, oblanceolate or lanceolate to linear, tapering towards the base, sometimes petiolate
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences much branched, with several to numerous corymbose-paniculately arranged spikes, these mostly in lax groups of triads of which the median spike is usually longer and subsessile and the lateral ones on peduncles up to 5–8 mm long, these sometimes replaced by branches bearing also triads; spikes slender or filiform, up to 20 cm long in fruit, the youngest flowers closely spaced at the spike apex and the maturing flowers becoming more widely spaced toward the base of the spike as the rhachis elongates; bracts green, (1.25)2–3 mm long, slightly shorter than or equalling the calyx, lanceolate, ± attenuate towards the acute apex, hispidulous outside and shortly closely ciliate
    Calyx
    Calyx (1.5)2–3 mm long in flower, hirsute, hispidulous or tomentose
    Corolla
    Corolla lavender or lilac to violet or violet-blue, 3–3.5 mm long, not overtopping the apex of the spike, pubescent outside; tube exserted from the calyx for 0.5–1 mm; limb inconspicuous, 2.5–3 mm wide, with subequal, obtuse lobes
    Style
    Style c. 1 mm long
    Fruits
    Mericarps 1.2–1.7 mm long, longitudinally striate on the back and raised-reticulate in the upper part, minutely densely whitish tuberculate at the commissural face.
    Ecology
    In damp soil in grassland, in headwaters of streams and on river banks; also in old cultivation and on roadsides; c. 1300 m.
    Distribution
    Zimbabwe Zambia Zimbabwe Native of South America and now widely naturalized as a subtropical and tropical weed. District code: MOZ W, ZIM W.

    Images

    Distribution

    Doubtfully present in:

    Argentina South

    Native to:

    Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Chile Central, Chile North, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, El Salvador, Galápagos, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Nicaragua, Panamá, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay, Venezuela

    Introduced into:

    Easter Is., Free State, Hawaii, Illinois, Juan Fernández Is., Mauritius, Nansei-shoto, New Caledonia, New South Wales, New Zealand North, Norfolk Is., Northern Territory, Puerto Rico, Queensland, Réunion, South Australia, Southwest Caribbean, Venezuelan Antilles, Western Australia, Zambia, Zimbabwe

    Verbena litoralis Kunth appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Rico, L. [1183], Bolivia K000295025
    Rico, L. [1215], Bolivia K000295062
    Sellow [2360], Brazil K000470534

    First published in F.W.H.von Humboldt, A.J.A.Bonpland & C.S.Kunth, Nov. Gen. Sp. 2: 276 (1818)

    Accepted by

    • Retief, E. & Meyer, N.L. (2017). Plants of the Free State inventory and identification guide Strelitzia 38: 1-1236. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Villaseñor, J.L. (2016). Checklist of the native vascular plants of Mexico Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad 87: 559-902.
    • O'Leary, N. & Múlgura, M.E. (2014). Synopsis of tribe Verbeneae Dumortier (Verbenaceae) in Peru Phytotaxa 163: 121-148.
    • Mohlenbrock, R.H. (2014). Vascular Flora of Illinois. A Field Guide, ed. 4: 1-536. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.
    • Davidse, G. & al. (eds.) (2012). Flora Mesoamericana 4(2): 1-533. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
    • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
    • Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., Ortiz, R.D.C., Callejas Posada, R. & Merello, M. (eds.) (2011). Flora de Antioquia: Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares 2: 1-939. Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • Danton, P. & Perrier, C. (2004). Liste de la Flore vasculaire de l'île Robinson Crusoe archipel Juan Fernández, Chili Journal de Botanique Société de Botanique de France 24: 67-78.
    • Govaerts, R. (2003). World Checklist of Selected Plant Families Database in ACCESS: 1-216203. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • MacKee, H.S. (1994). Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie, ed. 2: 1-164. Museum national d'histoire naturelle, Paris.
    • Webb, C.J., Sykes, W.R & Garnock-Jones, P.J. (1988). Flora of New Zealand 4: 1-1365. R.E.Owen, Government Printer, Wellington.

    Literature

    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Kew Bull. 45 : 115, fig. 4 (1990).
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Retief, E. & Meyer, N.L. (2017). Plants of the Free State inventory and identification guide Strelitzia 38: 1-1236. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Mohlenbrock, R.H. (2014). Vascular Flora of Illinois. A Field Guide, ed. 4: 1-536. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.
    • Nesom, G.L. (2010). Taxonomic notes on Verbena bonariensis (Verbenaceae) and related species in the USA Phytoneuron 2010-12: 1-16.
    • Fernandes, R. & Diniz, M.A. (2005). Avicenniaceae, Nesogenaceae, Verbenaceae and Lamiaceae (subfams, Viticoideae and Ajugoideae) Flora Zambesiaca 8(7): 1-161. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Danton, P. & Perrier, C. (2004). Liste de la Flore vasculaire de l'île Robinson Crusoe archipel Juan Fernández, Chili Journal de Botanique Société de Botanique de France 24: 67-78.
    • Gonzalez, F., Nelson Diaz, J. & Lowry, P. (1995). Flora Illustrada de San Andrés y Providencia: 1-281. Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Colombia.
    • Orchard, A.E. (ed.) (1994). Oceanic Islands 1 Flora of Australia 49: 1-681. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • MacKee, H.S. (1994). Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie, ed. 2: 1-164. Museum national d'histoire naturelle, Paris.
    • Zizka, G. (1991). Flowering plants of Easter island Palmarum Hortus Francofurtensis 3: 1-108.

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0