1. Family: Fabaceae Lindl.
    1. Clitoria L.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Tropics & Subtropics.

    [FZ]

    Leguminosae, B. Mackinder, R. Pasquet, R. Polhill & B. Verdcourt. Flora Zambesiaca 3:5. 2001

    Habit
    Trailing, climbing or erect herbs, shrubs or small trees.
    Leaves
    Leaves pinnately 3–9-foliolate, rarely 1-foliolate; stipels present or absent.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences few-flowered in racemes, or flowers axillary, solitary or paired; upper pair of bracts connate; bracteoles large.
    Calyx
    Calyx 5-lobed, upper pair of lobes joined only at the base.
    Corolla
    Corolla large, often resupinate; standard much exceeding the other petals, often pubescent outside.
    Stamens
    Vexillary filament free or joined to the others at the base.
    Pistil
    Ovary stipitate, 2–many-ovuled; style elongate, curved, bearded and slightly widened towards the terminal stigma.
    Fruits
    Pod linear-oblong, compressed or convex, dehiscent, with or without longitudinal ribs.
    Seeds
    Seeds variously coloured, oblong-ellipsoid, compressed, with a central to excentric hilum and a persistent white rim aril and funicular remnant.
    [FTEA]

    Leguminosae, J. B. Gillett, R. M. Polhill & B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1971

    Habit
    Climbing or erect herbs or shrubs, rarely trees
    Leaves
    Leaves pinnately 3–9-foliolate, more rarely 1-foliolate; stipules and stipels present
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences few-flowered, racemose, or flowers axillary, solitary or paired, sometimes on the old wood; upper pairs of bracts connate; bracteoles large
    Calyx
    Calyx 5-lobed, upper pair of lobes joined only at the base
    Corolla
    Corolla large, white, red or blue; standard large, much exceeding the other petals, rounded, erect, emarginate, without appendages
    Stamens
    Vexillary stamen free or ± joined to the bundle; anthers almost uniform or 5 dorsifixed alternating with 5 subbasifixed
    Ovary
    Ovary stipitate, 2-many-ovuled
    Pistil
    Style elongated, incurved, bearded inside at the slightly dilated apex; stigma terminal
    Flowers
    Cleistogamous flowers occur in some species
    Fruits
    Pod linear-oblong, compressed, sometimes longitudinally ribbed, filled with soft tissue but not septate
    Seeds
    Seeds subglobose or ellipsoid, compressed; hilum small, central or subcentral; aril not developed.
    [LOWO]

    Legumes of the World. Edited by G. Lewis, B. Schrire, B. MacKinder & M. Lock. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. (2005)

    Habit
    Shrubs, lianas, herbs and trees
    Ecology
    Seasonally dry to wet tropical lowland and montane forest, woodland or scrubland and wooded grassland
    Distribution
    S America, C America, Caribbean and Mexico (c. 48 spp., centred in northern S America), Africa (4 spp.), Madagascar (2 spp.), Indian subcontinent (1 sp.), Indo-China, China, Malesia (6 spp.), Australia (1 sp.)
    Note
    Subtribe Clitoriinae, based on the bulk of molecular evidence to date, holds a basally branching position between the millettioid and phaseoloid clades

    Previous accounts of the Phaseoleae by Baudet (1978) and Lackey (1981) recognised 90 and 84 genera and c. 1540 and 1480 species respectively in the tribe. In an equivalent, i.e. traditionally held view of Phaseoleae, 89 genera and (1554)–1567–(1580) species are treated here (Table 9; Fig. 47). Changes between Baudet (1978) and this treatment are that eleven genera are now in synonymy or have subsequently been placed in Millettieae, two genera have been transferred from Desmodieae and eight new genera have been added. Vigna has traditionally been thought to comprise some 150–200 species, but Vigna sens. strict. may contain fewer than 100.

    Recent molecular analyses of the tribe, however, have emphasised both the polyphyletic and paraphyletic nature of Phaseoleae as traditionally circumscribed (Bruneau & Doyle, 1990; Doyle & Doyle, 1993; Delgado Salinas et al., 1993; Bruneau et al., 1995; Doyle et al., 1997, 2000; Kajita et al., 2001; Goel et al., 2001; Lee & Hymowitz, 2001). This has required a radical realignment of elements of the phaseoloids (Table 9; Fig. 47), with at least two major clades being evident: Phaseoleae subtribes Diocleinae and Ophrestiinae which together with tribe Abreae are allied to the core-Millettieae (Fig. 45), and the remaining groups comprising a Phaseoleae sens. lat. clade. The rbcL phylogeny of Kajita et al. (2001) and the ITS analysis of Hu et al. (2002) are equivocal as to which clade subtribe Clitoriinae belongs. Phaseoleae sens. lat. also includes two traditionally independent tribes, the Desmodieae and Psoraleeae. Delimiting a recircumscribed Phaseoleae sens. strict is thus very problematic. A solution may be to recognise a broad tribe Phaseoleae, comprising the subtribes Kennediinae, Cajaninae, Phaseolinae and Glycininae, assorted basally branching genera, and tribes Desmodieae and Psoraleeae (both treated at subtribal level).

    [LOWO]
    Use
    Used as ornamentals, forage, green manure, cover crops and medicine

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Alabama, Angola, Argentina Northeast, Arizona, Arkansas, Assam, Belize, Benin, Bolivia, Borneo, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Burkina, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Caprivi Strip, Central African Repu, China South-Central, China Southeast, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Delaware, District of Columbia, Dominican Republic, East Himalaya, Ecuador, El Salvador, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Florida, French Guiana, Gabon, Gambia, Georgia, Ghana, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Guyana, Hainan, Honduras, Illinois, India, Indiana, Iowa, Jawa, Kansas, Kentucky, Kenya, Laccadive Is., Laos, Leeward Is., Lesser Sunda Is., Louisiana, Madagascar, Maine, Malawi, Malaya, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Mississippi, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nebraska, New Jersey, New York, Nicaragua, Nigeria, North Carolina, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Oklahoma, Panamá, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Puerto Rico, Réunion, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Solomon Is., Somalia, South Dakota, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Suriname, Taiwan, Tanzania, Tennessee, Texas, Thailand, Togo, Trinidad-Tobago, Uganda, Uruguay, Venezuela, Vietnam, Virginia, West Himalaya, West Virginia, Western Australia, Windward Is., Wisconsin, Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Aldabra, Andaman Is., Aruba, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Bismarck Archipelago, Canary Is., Cayman Is., Chad, Christmas I., Comoros, Cook Is., Egypt, Fiji, Galápagos, Gilbert Is., Haiti, Iraq, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Liberia, Maldives, Nepal, Netherlands Antilles, New Caledonia, New Guinea, Nicobar Is., Niger, Pakistan, Queensland, Seychelles, Society Is., Southwest Caribbean, Sri Lanka, Tonga, Venezuelan Antilles

    Clitoria L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Dec 4, 1978 Philcox, D. [4537], Brazil K000920665
    Dec 4, 1978 Philcox, D. [3565], Brazil K000920667
    Dec 4, 1972 Philcox, D. [49], Brazil K000920666
    Jan 1, 1969 Prance, G.T. [6854], Brazil K000920657
    Hinton, G.B. [4447], Mexico K000118536
    Hinton, G.B. [1528], Mexico K000118537
    Hinton, G.B. [1528], Mexico K000118538
    Philcox, D. [3606], Brazil K000920668
    Coradin, L. [3754], Brazil K000920659
    Bamps, P. [5050], Brazil K000920656
    Fróes, R.L. [1822], Brazil K000920669
    Prance, G.T. [2736], Brazil K000920654
    Prance, G.T. [2736], Brazil K000920655
    Prance, G.T. [5068], Brazil K000920663
    Anderson, A.B. [1192], Brazil K000920658
    Glaziou, A. [12548], Brazil K000920662
    Santos, M.L.O. [16], Brazil K000920660
    Queiroz, J.C.C. [12], Brazil K000920661
    Nascimento, O.C. [436], Brazil K000920664

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 753 (1753)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • —F.T.A. 2: 176.
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 334 (1754).
    • Sp. Pl.: 753 (1753)
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Benth. in J.L.S. 2: 33 (1858)
    • L., Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 334 (1754)
    • Sp. PL: 753 (1753)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Legumes of the World Online
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0