1. Family: Apocynaceae Juss.
    1. Vincetoxicum Wolf

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Europe, NW. Africa, Socotra, Asia to SW. Pacific.

    [FTEA]

    Apocynaceae (part 2), David Goyder, Timothy Harris, Siro Masinde, Ulrich Meve, Johan Venter. Flora of Tropical East Africa, 2012

    Habit
    Subshrubs or slender woody twiners, stiffly branched.
    Exudate
    Latex clear
    Leaves
    Leaves opposite on new growth or appearing whorled or clustered due to severe contraction of lateral shoots.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences alternate and extra-axillary, but often appearing to be opposite and axillary due to contraction of short lateral shoots, few-flowered, ± umbelliform.
    Flowers
    Flowers minute
    Corona
    Corolline corona absent Gynostegial corona of five distinct fleshy staminal lobes arising from the base of the gynostegium and never exceeding it
    Gynostegium
    Gynostegium sessile
    Anthers
    Anther connectives with apical appendages
    Pollinarium
    Pollinaria with a pair of pendant pollinia
    Style
    Stylar head flat or conical
    Fruits
    Follicles single, thin-walled
    Seeds
    Seeds flattened, smooth, winged, with a coma of silky hairs.
    Note
    Two species in East Africa and Arabia.
    [FTEA]

    Apocynaceae (part 2), David Goyder, Timothy Harris, Siro Masinde, Ulrich Meve, Johan Venter. Flora of Tropical East Africa, 2012

    Habit
    Erect or twining shrubs, vines or pyrophytic herbs.
    Exudate
    Latex clear
    Leaves
    Leaves opposite
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences extra-axillary, frequently lax and with many flower clusters along an extended axis, more rarely few-flowered
    Corolla
    Corolla deeply five-lobed, normally adaxially with indumentum
    Corona
    Corolline corona absent Gynostegial corona consisting of five discrete lobes adnate to the staminal column below the anther wings
    Anthers
    Anther connectives with apical appendages.
    Pollinia
    Pollinia ± horizontal or pendant, rarely erect, globose to ovoid or cylindrical, minute
    Style
    Stylar head flat or capitate.
    Fruits
    Follicles usually occuring singly, smooth, wingless.
    Seeds
    Seeds flattened, smooth, winged, with a coma of silky hairs.
    [FTEA]

    Apocynaceae (part 2), David Goyder, Timothy Harris, Siro Masinde, Ulrich Meve, Johan Venter. Flora of Tropical East Africa, 2012

    Habit
    Subshrubs or twiners from a woody rootstock.
    Exudate
    Latex clear
    Leaves
    Leaves opposite
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences extra-axillary, flowers small
    Corona
    Corolline corona absent Gynostegial corona consisting of two whorls: a ring of connate staminal and interstaminal parts arising from the base of the gynostegium and appressed to the corolla, and a whorl of staminal lobes radiating from the back of the anthers
    Gynostegium
    Gynostegium sessile
    Anthers
    Anther connectives with apical appendages.
    Pollinia
    Pollinia pendant, attached subapically to the translator arms
    Style
    Apex of stylar head domed-conical
    Fruits
    Follicles almost always single
    Seeds
    Seeds flattened, ovate, with a coma of silky hairs.
    Note
    A monotypic genus in East Africa.
    [FTEA]

    Apocynaceae (part 2), David Goyder, Timothy Harris, Siro Masinde, Ulrich Meve, Johan Venter. Flora of Tropical East Africa, 2012

    Habit
    Perennial herbs or small shrubs with twining stems.
    Exudate
    Latex clear, sparse
    Leaves
    Leaves semi-succulent, opposite
    Calyx
    Calyx of 5 free sepals
    Corolla
    Corolla-tube campanulate; lobes narrowly triangular, contorted in bud
    Corona
    Corolline corona absent Gynostegial corona of vestigial staminal lobes linked by minute interstaminal pockets around the base of the column
    Stamens
    Staminal column raised slightly above the base of the corolla-tube.
    Filaments
    Filaments short.
    Anthers
    Anthers oblong, erect with rounded backs, the horny anther wings incurved toward the centre of the flower; anther appendages sub-erect, membranous.
    Pollinarium
    Pollinaria each with 2 pollinia suspended vertically from the short caudicles.
    Style
    Stylar head produced beyond the anthers into a beak
    Fruits
    Follicles lanceolateacuminate, smooth.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Altay, Amur, Andaman Is., Assam, Austria, Baleares, Baltic States, Bangladesh, Belarus, Belgium, Borneo, Bulgaria, Buryatiya, Cambodia, Central European Rus, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Chita, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, East Aegean Is., East European Russia, East Himalaya, Fiji, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hainan, Hungary, India, Inner Mongolia, Iran, Iraq, Irkutsk, Italy, Japan, Jawa, Kazakhstan, Khabarovsk, Korea, Krasnoyarsk, Kriti, Krym, Lebanon-Syria, Lesser Sunda Is., Malaya, Manchuria, Mongolia, Morocco, Myanmar, Nansei-shoto, Nepal, Netherlands, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New South Wales, Nicobar Is., Norfolk Is., North Caucasus, Northern Territory, Norway, Pakistan, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Primorye, Qinghai, Queensland, Romania, Sakhalin, Socotra, South European Russi, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sweden, Switzerland, Tadzhikistan, Taiwan, Thailand, Tibet, Tonga, Transcaucasus, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Turkmenistan, Tuva, Ukraine, Vanuatu, Victoria, Vietnam, West Himalaya, West Siberia, Western Australia, Xinjiang, Yugoslavia

    Introduced into:

    British Columbia, California, Connecticut, Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Kentucky, Maine, Maryland, Masachusettes, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Ontario, Pennsylvania, Québec, Rhode I., Vermont, Wisconsin

    Recorded in error in:

    Corse, Sardegna

    Vincetoxicum Wolf appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Apr 1, 2001 Willis, F.R. [104], Indonesia Tylophora 72284.000
    Jan 1, 1997 Elmer, A.D.E. [9101], Philippines Tylophora K000894662
    Jan 1, 1997 Ramos, M. [s.n.], Philippines Tylophora K000894663
    Jan 1, 1995 Cheek, M. [5816], Cameroon Tylophora K000011950
    Jan 1, 1995 Cheek, M. [5816], Cameroon Tylophora K000011951
    Milne-Redhead, E. [8904], Tanzania Tylophora 6393.000
    Faulkner, H. [k.466], Mozambique Tylophora 5394.000
    Forman, L.L. [541] Tylophora 3445.000
    Cheek, M. [9918], Cameroon Tylophora 74242.000
    Boyce, P.C. [1018], Thailand Tylophora 71659.000
    Boyce, P.C. [1250], Thailand Tylophora 71693.000
    Wheatley, J.I. [568], Cameroon Tylophora K000085043
    Boppre, M. [88-055], Kenya Tylophora 53329.000
    Boppre, M. [88-086], Kenya Tylophora 53332.000
    Boppre, M. [88-062], Kenya Tylophora 53333.000
    Boppre, M. [88-085], Kenya Tylophora 53334.000
    Sasidharan, N. [003696], India Tylophora 59631.000
    Etuge, M. [2029], Cameroon Tylophora 63768.000
    Etuge, M. [2195], Cameroon Tylophora 63769.000
    Etuge, M. [2029], Cameroon Tylophora 73379.000

    First published in Gen. Pl.: 130 (1776)

    Sources

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0