1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Genus: Festuca Tourn. ex L.
      1. Festuca rubra L.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Subarctic & Temp. Northern Hemisphere to Mexico.

    [GB]
    Habit
    Perennial; culms solitary, or caespitose; clumped loosely. Cataphylls inconspicuous. Rhizomes absent, or short; fleshy; not obviously scaly. Basal innovations extravaginal, or intravaginal. Culms erect, or geniculately ascending; slender; straight; 15-90 cm long; 1-3 -noded; without nodal roots. Culm-internodes terete. Culm-nodes without exudate; glabrous. Lateral branches lacking. Leaves mostly basal; 0-1 per branch. Leaf-sheaths tight; unthickened at base; tubular for much of their length; without keel; striately veined; glabrous on surface, or pubescent. Ligule an eciliate membrane; 0.2 mm long; membranous; white; entire; truncate. Leaf-blade base symmetrical. Leaf-blades straight; filiform; conduplicate; angular in section; 3-40 cm long; 0.5-1(-2) mm wide; coriaceous; flaccid; mid-green. Leaf-blade midrib indistinct. Leaf-blade venation indistinct; comprising 5-7 vascular bundles; with subepidermal sclerenchyma strands similar in size; with subepidermal sclerenchyma free from veins; without layer of subepidermal sclerenchyma masking vein striation. Leaf-blade surface smooth, or scabrous; glabrous. Leaf-blade margins smooth; glabrous. Leaf-blade apex obtuse, or abruptly acute.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle; with 1 peduncles per sheath. Peduncle terete; eglandular; smooth; glabrous. Panicle open, or contracted; lanceolate, or oblong; continuous; dense; straight; 3-17 cm long; bearing many spikelets, or few spikelets. Primary panicle branches appressed, or ascending; sparsely divided; bearing spikelets almost to the base. Panicle branches straight, or arcuate; angular; scabrous. Spikelets solitary. Fertile spikelets pedicelled. Pedicels 1-5 mm long.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 3-9 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets elliptic, or oblong; laterally compressed; 5-14 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Spikelet callus glabrous. Rhachilla internodes smooth. Floret callus glabrous.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 3-9 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets elliptic, or oblong; laterally compressed; 5-14 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Spikelet callus glabrous. Rhachilla internodes smooth. Floret callus glabrous.
    Glume
    Glumes persistent; dissimilar; subequal in width; shorter than spikelet. Lower glume lanceolate; 2-4 mm long; 0.7-0.8 length of upper glume; chartaceous; light green; without keels; 1 -veined. Lower glume lateral veins absent. Lower glume apex acute. Upper glume oblong; 3-5 mm long; 0.7-0.8 length of adjacent fertile lemma; chartaceous; mid-green; without keels; 3 -veined. Upper glume apex acute.
    Florets
    Fertile lemma ovate; symmetrical; 4-6 mm long; chartaceous; dark green; without keel; 5 -veined. Lemma surface scaberulous; rough above. Lemma apex acute; awned; 1 -awned. Principal lemma awn stiff; 0.5-3 mm long overall. Palea 1 length of lemma; 2 -veined. Palea keels scaberulous; adorned above. Apical sterile florets resembling fertile though underdeveloped.
    Flowers
    Anthers 3; 2-3 mm long. Ovary glabrous.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp; glabrous. Hilum linear; 1 length of caryopsis.
    Distribution
    Europe: northern, central, southwestern, southeastern, and eastern. Africa: north and Macaronesia. Asia-temperate: Siberia, Soviet far east, Soviet Middle Asia, Caucasus, western Asia, Arabia, China, Mongolia, and eastern Asia. Asia-tropical: India. Australasia: Australia and New Zealand. Pacific: north-central. North America: Subarctic, western Canada, eastern Canada, northwest USA, north-central USA, northeast USA, southwest USA, south-central USA, southeast USA, and Mexico. South America: Mesoamericana, western South America, and southern South America. Antarctic: Subantarctic islands.
    Reference
    Poeae. Stancik 2005.
    [GB]
    Habit
    Perennial; caespitose; clumped loosely. Rhizomes elongated. Butt sheaths persistent and investing base of culm; with fibrous dead sheaths. Culms erect; 30-60 cm long. Leaf-sheaths tubular for much of their length; with 0.75 of their length closed; smooth, or scaberulous. Ligule an eciliate membrane; 0.5-1 mm long. Collar glabrous. Leaf-blades flat, or conduplicate; 1.5-2.5 mm wide; dark green. Leaf-blade venation with sclerenchyma strands below veins; 5-9 subepidermal sclerenchyma strands; subepidermal sclerenchyma free from veins. Leaf-blade surface scabrous; rough abaxially; pilose; hairy adaxially.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle. Panicle open; oblong; loose; nodding; (4-)7-12(-15) cm long. Primary panicle branches ascending; 1-2 -nate; bearing 2-5 fertile spikelets on each lower branch. Spikelets solitary. Fertile spikelets pedicelled.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 3-6 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets oblong; laterally compressed; 10-13 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret, or above glumes but not between florets.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 3-6 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets oblong; laterally compressed; 10-13 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret, or above glumes but not between florets.
    Glume
    Glumes persistent; similar; shorter than spikelet. Lower glume lanceolate; (2.5-)3.5-6 mm long; 0.75 length of upper glume; membranous; without keels; 1 -veined. Lower glume lateral veins absent. Lower glume surface scabrous; rough above. Lower glume apex acute. Upper glume lanceolate, or elliptic; 4.5-6.5(-8) mm long; 0.9-1.1 length of adjacent fertile lemma; membranous; without keels; 3 -veined. Upper glume surface scabrous; rough above. Upper glume apex acute.
    Florets
    Fertile lemma lanceolate; 5-6 mm long; chartaceous; without keel; 5 -veined. Lemma surface smooth, or scabrous; rough above; glabrous, or pubescent. Lemma apex acute; muticous, or mucronate. Palea 2 -veined. Apical sterile florets resembling fertile though underdeveloped.
    Flowers
    Anthers 3; 2.5-4 mm long.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp. Hilum linear.
    Vegetative Multiplication
    Vegetative proliferation occurs.
    Distribution
    North America: western Canada.
    Reference
    Poeae. Fl N Amer 2007.
    [GB]
    Habit
    Perennial; caespitose; clumped loosely. Stolons present. Basal innovations extravaginal and intravaginal. Culms erect, or geniculately ascending; slender; 20-40 cm long; 2-3 -noded; with 0.25-0.33 of their length below uppermost node. Culm-internodes striate; smooth; distally glabrous. Culm-nodes black. Leaf-sheaths tubular for much of their length; with 0.75-1 of their length closed; without keel; striately veined; smooth; glabrous on surface to pubescent. Ligule an eciliate membrane; 1 mm long; erose; truncate. Leaf-blades flat, or conduplicate; 5-10 cm long; 1.5-2.5 mm wide. Leaf-blade midrib conspicuous. Leaf-blade venation with 10-16 secondary veins; 3 subepidermal sclerenchyma strands (midrib & margins). Leaf-blade surface ribbed; glabrous, or pubescent; hairy adaxially. Leaf-blade margins scabrous. Leaf-blade apex abruptly acute, or acute.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle. Panicle open; linear, or lanceolate; 3-8 cm long. Primary panicle branches 1-2 -nate; 1.5-4 cm long; bearing 2-4 fertile spikelets on each lower branch. Panicle branches scaberulous. Spikelets solitary. Fertile spikelets pedicelled. Pedicels tip rectangular.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 3-7 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets lanceolate, or elliptic; laterally compressed; 7 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Rhachilla internodes 0.6-0.7 mm long; scaberulous.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 3-7 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets lanceolate, or elliptic; laterally compressed; 7 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Rhachilla internodes 0.6-0.7 mm long; scaberulous.
    Glume
    Glumes persistent; dissimilar; shorter than spikelet. Lower glume linear; 3-3.5 mm long; 0.75 length of upper glume; chartaceous; without keels; 1 -veined. Lower glume lateral veins absent. Lower glume surface smooth, or asperulous. Lower glume apex acute. Upper glume lanceolate; 4-4.5 mm long; 0.75-0.9 length of adjacent fertile lemma; chartaceous; without keels; 3 -veined. Upper glume surface smooth, or asperulous. Upper glume apex acute.
    Florets
    Fertile lemma lanceolate; 5 mm long; 1.5-2 mm wide; chartaceous; without keel; 5 -veined. Lemma surface scaberulous; rough above. Lemma apex dentate; 2 -fid; awned; 1 -awned. Principal lemma awn from a sinus; 2 mm long overall. Palea 1 length of lemma; 2 -veined. Palea keels scabrous. Palea apex dentate; 2 -fid. Apical sterile florets resembling fertile though underdeveloped.
    Flowers
    Anthers 3; 3 mm long. Ovary glabrous.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp; sulcate on hilar side; glabrous. Hilum linear; 0.66 length of caryopsis.
    Distribution
    Africa: north.
    Reference
    Poeae. Fl Afr Nord 1999.

    Images

    Distribution

    Doubtfully present in:

    Morocco

    Native to:

    Afghanistan, Alabama, Alaska, Albania, Alberta, Aleutian Is., Algeria, Altay, Amur, Arizona, Assam, Austria, Baltic States, Belarus, Belgium, British Columbia, Bulgaria, Buryatiya, California, Central European Rus, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Chita, Connecticut, Corse, Czechoslovakia, Delaware, Denmark, District of Columbia, East European Russia, East Himalaya, Finland, France, Føroyar, Georgia, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Greenland, Hungary, Iceland, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Inner Mongolia, Iowa, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Irkutsk, Italy, Japan, Kamchatka, Kazakhstan, Kentucky, Khabarovsk, Kirgizstan, Korea, Krasnoyarsk, Krym, Kuril Is., Labrador, Magadan, Maine, Manchuria, Manitoba, Maryland, Masachusettes, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Minnesota, Missouri, Mongolia, Montana, Nebraska, Nepal, Netherlands, Nevada, New Brunswick, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, Newfoundland, North Carolina, North Caucasus, North Dakota, North European Russi, Northwest European R, Northwest Territorie, Norway, Nova Scotia, Nunavut, Ohio, Ontario, Oregon, Pakistan, Pennsylvania, Poland, Portugal, Primorye, Prince Edward I., Qinghai, Québec, Rhode I., Romania, Sakhalin, Saskatchewan, Sicilia, South Carolina, South European Russi, Spain, Svalbard, Sweden, Switzerland, Tadzhikistan, Tennessee, Texas, Tibet, Transcaucasus, Turkey, Tuva, Ukraine, Utah, Uzbekistan, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, West Himalaya, West Siberia, West Virginia, Wisconsin, Wyoming, Xinjiang, Yakutskiya, Yugoslavia, Yukon

    Introduced into:

    Amsterdam-St.Paul Is, Antipodean Is., Argentina Northwest, Argentina South, Azores, Canary Is., Chatham Is., Chile Central, Chile South, Colombia, Colorado, Costa Rica, Crozet Is., Ecuador, Falkland Is., Hawaii, Kerguelen, Madeira, Marion-Prince Edward, New South Wales, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, South Australia, South Georgia, Tasmania, Tristan da Cunha, Victoria, Western Australia, Yemen

    Festuca rubra L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Dec 1, 1978 Richardson, J. [s.n.], Canada K000913327
    Dec 1, 1978 Richardson, J. [128] K000913328
    Cope, T.A. [RBG 366], United Kingdom K000914499
    Cope, T.A. [RBG 485], United Kingdom K000914500
    s.coll. [s.n.], Nova Scotia K000913326
    Richardson, J. [79], Canada Festuca rubra var. lanuginosa K000913331 Unknown type material
    Pullen, W.J.S. [169], Canada Festuca rubra var. lanuginosa K000913332
    Allan, H.H. [s.n.], New Zealand South Festuca briquetii K000913279
    Allan, H.H. [21], New Zealand South Festuca briquetii K000913281
    Petrie, D. [3], New Zealand South Festuca briquetii K000913280

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 74 (1753)

    Accepted by

    • Ospina, J.C., Aliscioni, S.S. & Denham, S.S. (2015). A revision of Festuca (Loliinae, Pooideae, Poaceae) in Chile Phytotaxa 223(1): 1-66.
    • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
    • Marhold, K. (ed.) (2012). IAPT/IOPB chromosome data 14 Taxon 61: 1336-1345.
    • Oppenheimer, H. (2011). New Hawaiian plant records for 2009 Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 220: 5-10.
    • Giraldo-Cañas, D. (2011). Catálogo de la familia Poaceae en Colombia Darwiniana 49: 139-247.
    • Meyer, F.K. (2011). Beiträge zur Flora von Albanien Haussknechtia, Beih. 15: 1-220.
    • Edgar, E & Connor, H.E. (2010). Flora of New Zealand, ed. 2, 5: 1-650. R.E.Owen, Government Printer, Wellington.
    • Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Clayton, W.D. & Snow, N. (2010). A key to Pacific Grasses: 1-107. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Wilson, A. (ed.) (2009). Flora of Australia 44A: 1-410. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • Kandwal, M.K. & Gupta, B.K. (2009). An update on grass flora of Uttarkhand Indian Journal of Forestry 32: 657-668.
    • Gremmen, N. & Halbertsma, R.L. (2009). Alien plants and their impact on Tristan da Cunha 2: 1-307. Overseas Territories Environment Programme (OTEP).
    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348.
    • Grubov, V.I. (2008). Key to the vascular plants of Mongolia (with an atlas) 2: 1-503. Academy of Sciences, Mongolian People's Republic, Ulaan Bator.
    • Cope, T.A., Knees, S.G. & Miller, A.G. (2007). Flora of the Arabian peninsula and Socotra 5(1): 1-387. Edinburgh University Press.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2007). Flora of North America North of Mexico 24: 1-908. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) (2006). Conspectus Florae Caucasi 2: 1-466. Editio Universitatis Petropolitanae.
    • Frenot, Y., Chown, S.L., Whinam, J., Selkirk, P.M., Convey, P., Skotnicki, M. & Bergstrom,D.M. (2005). Biological invasions in the Antarctic: extent, impacts and implications Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society 80: 45-72.
    • Malyschev, L.I. & Peschkova, G.A. (eds.) (2001). Flora of Siberia 2: 1-362. Scientific Publishers, Inc., Enfield, Plymouth.
    • Noltie, H.J. (2000). Flora of Bhutan 3(2): 457-883. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
    • Press, J.R. et al. (2000). Annotated Checklist of the Flowering Plants of Nepal: i-x, 1-430. Natural History Museum, London.
    • Fedorov, A.A. (ed.) (1999). Flora of Russia. The European part and bordering regions 1: 1-546. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam, Broekfield.
    • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánez, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: i-viii, 1-1181.
    • Lee, W.T. (1996). Lineamenta Florae Koreae: 1-1688. Soul T'ukpyolsi: Ak'ademi Sojok.
    • Davidse, G. & al. (eds.) (1994). Flora Mesoamericana 6: 1-543. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
    • Karthikeyan, S., Jain, S.K., Nayar, M.P. & Sanjappa, M. (1989). Florae Indicae Enumeratio: Monocotyledonae: 1-435. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.
    • Kharkevich, S.S., Probatova, N.S. & Novikov, V.S. (1985). Sosudistye rasteniia sovetskogo Dal’nego Vostoka 1: 1-383. Izd-vo "Nauka," Leningradskoe otd-nie, Leningrad.
    • Cope, T.A. (1982). Flora of Pakistan 143: 1-678. Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi.
    • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1980). Flora Europaea 5: 1-452. Cambridge University Press.
    • Bor, N.L. (1970). Flora Iranica 70: 1-573. Naturhistorisches Museums Wien.
    • Bor, N.L. (1968). Flora of Iraq 9: 1-588. Ministry of Agriculture & Agrarian Reform, Baghdad.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Marhold, K. (ed.) (2012). IAPT/IOPB chromosome data 14 Taxon 61: 1336-1345.
    • Giraldo-Cañas, D. (2011). Catálogo de la familia Poaceae en Colombia Darwiniana 49: 139-247.
    • Stepantsova, N.V. (2010). Additions to the "flora of Siberia" in Lena-Katanga floristic area of Irkutsk region Botanicheskii Zhurnal. Moscow & Leningrad 95: 992-1005.
    • Edgar, E & Connor, H.E. (2010). Flora of New Zealand, ed. 2, 5: 1-650. R.E.Owen, Government Printer, Wellington.
    • Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Wilson, A. (ed.) (2009). Flora of Australia 44A: 1-410. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • Kandwal, M.K. & Gupta, B.K. (2009). An update on grass flora of Uttarkhand Indian Journal of Forestry 32: 657-668.
    • Gremmen, N. & Halbertsma, R.L. (2009). Alien plants and their impact on Tristan da Cunha 2: 1-307. Overseas Territories Environment Programme (OTEP).
    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348.
    • Grubov, V.I. (2008). Key to the vascular plants of Mongolia (with an atlas) 2: 1-503. Academy of Sciences, Mongolian People's Republic, Ulaan Bator.
    • Cope, T.A., Knees, S.G. & Miller, A.G. (2007). Flora of the Arabian peninsula and Socotra 5(1): 1-387. Edinburgh University Press.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2007). Flora of North America North of Mexico 24: 1-908. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2006). Poaceae Flora of China 22: 1-733. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Dávila, P., Mejia-Saulés, M.T., Gómez-Sánchez, N., Valdés-Reyna, J., Ortíz, J.J., Morín, C., Castrejón, J. & Ocampo, A. (2006). Catálogo de las Gramíneas de México: 1-671. CONABIO, México city.
    • Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) (2006). Conspectus Florae Caucasi 2: 1-466. Editio Universitatis Petropolitanae.
    • Frenot, Y., Chown, S.L., Whinam, J., Selkirk, P.M., Convey, P., Skotnicki, M. & Bergstrom,D.M. (2005). Biological invasions in the Antarctic: extent, impacts and implications Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society 80: 45-72.
    • Broughton, D.A. & McAdam, J.H. (2002). The non-native vascular flora of the Falkland islands Botanical Journal of Scotland 54: 153-190.
    • Malyschev, L.I. & Peschkova, G.A. (eds.) (2001). Flora of Siberia 2: 1-362. Scientific Publishers, Inc., Enfield, Plymouth.
    • Noltie, H.J. (2000). Flora of Bhutan 3(2): 457-883. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
    • Press, J.R. et al. (2000). Annotated Checklist of the Flowering Plants of Nepal: i-x, 1-430. Natural History Museum, London.
    • Fedorov, A.A. (ed.) (1999). Flora of Russia. The European part and bordering regions 1: 1-546. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam, Broekfield.
    • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánez, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: i-viii, 1-1181.
    • Lee, W.T. (1996). Lineamenta Florae Koreae: 1-1688. Soul T'ukpyolsi: Ak'ademi Sojok.
    • Davidse, G. & al. (eds.) (1994). Flora Mesoamericana 6: 1-543. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
    • Karthikeyan, S., Jain, S.K., Nayar, M.P. & Sanjappa, M. (1989). Florae Indicae Enumeratio: Monocotyledonae: 1-435. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.
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    • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1980). Flora Europaea 5: 1-452. Cambridge University Press.
    • Bor, N.L. (1970). Flora Iranica 70: 1-573. Naturhistorisches Museums Wien.
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    • Hultén, E.O.G. (1960). Flora of the Aleutian Islands and westernmost Alaska Peninsula: with notes on the flora of Commander Islands, ed. 2: 1-376. Weinheim : J. Cramer ; New York : Hafner Pub. Co.
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    Sources

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0