1. Family: Loganiaceae R.Br. ex Mart.
    1. Strychnos L.

      1. This genus is accepted, and is native to Asia-Tropical, Africa, Pacific, Southern America, Australasia, Northern America and Asia-Temperate..

    [FTEA]

    Loganiaceae, E. A. Bruce and J. Lewis. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1960

    Habit
    Trees or shrubs, sometimes scrambling or climbing with spines or hooked tendrils
    Leaves
    Leaves decussate, entire, 3–7-nerved from near the base; stipules absent or represented by an interpetiolar ridge
    Inflorescences
    Cymes axillary or terminal, simple or panicled
    Calyx
    Calyx 4- or 5-lobed, sometimes very deeply
    Corolla
    Corolla campanulate or salver-shaped; lobes 4 or 5, valvate in the bud
    Stamens
    Stamens 4 or 5; filaments short but anthers usually exserted
    Pistil
    Ovary 2-locular; style moderately long, undivided; stigma usually capitate; ovules few to many
    Fruits
    Fruit a drupe or a berry with a hard rind
    Seeds
    Seeds few to numerous, flattened or globose; endosperm copious and hard; embryo small.
    [FZ]

    Loganiaceae, A. J. M. Leeuwenberg. Flora Zambesiaca 7:1. 1983

    Habit
    Erect or climbing shrubs, lianas, or trees. Trees: usually less than 10 m. high (savanna spp.), 10–35(40) m. (forest spp.); trunk 10–100 cm. in diam.; without tendrils, often with arching branches (iS. usambarensis, S. xantha). Lianas with curled tendrils, solitary or arranged in 1–3 pairs above each other on short branches, in the axils of small bracts or — only if solitary — sometimes in the axils of ordinary leaves.
    Stem
    Branches armed with axillary or sometimes terminal simple straight or slightly recurved spines, unarmed, often lenticellate, rarely corky; branchlets terete, quadrangular, sometimes sulcate, especially when dry. Wood mostly hard, usually with bark–islets; bark mostly thin, smooth or less often rough, in lianas often with large lenticels, sometimes thick and corky (S. cocculoides).
    Stipules
    Stipules mostly reduced to an often ciliate and straight rim connecting the petiole–bases.
    Leaves
    Leaves opposite, sometimes decussate, or on the main axis sometimes ternate, those of a pair or whorl equal or subequal, petiolate or sometimes subsessile, mostly inserted on distinct leaf–cushions; blade variously shaped, orbicular to narrowly elliptic, mostly coriaceous, in the shade thinner, often larger, and more acute at the apex, entire; with 1–2(3) pairs of distinct secondary veins from or from above the base curved along the margin, usually not fully reaching the apex, anastomosing with the other veins or less often pinnately veined.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence terminal, axillary, or both, thyrsoid, 1–many–flowered, shorter or longer than the leaves, lax or congested, sometimes sessile.
    Flowers
    Flowers 4–5–merous, actinomorphic or with only sepals unequal.
    Calyx
    Calyx: sepals green or coloured approximately like the corolla, free or connate up to one–half of their length, equal, subequal, or sometimes unequal, imbricate, orbicular to linear, outside hairy or glabrous.
    Corolla
    Corolla rotate to salver–shaped, white to yellowish, greenish, pale green, or rarely orange or ochraceous, thin at the base, always more or less thickened towards the lobes, on both sides variously hairy, papillose, or glabrous, but inside at the base always glabrous, sometimes with a corona at the mouth; lobes valvate in the bud, triangular to oblong, acute or subacute, entire, erect to recurved.
    Stamens
    Stamens exserted or included, inserted at the mouth of or in the corolla tube; filaments glabrous or sometimes hairy; anthers introrse, orbicular to narrowly oblong, cordate, deeply so, or less often sagittate at the base.
    Pistil
    Pistil: ovary 2– or rarely 1–celled (S. mellodora, S. spinosa); stigma capitate, less often obscurely bilobed, or occasionally conical.
    Placenta
    In a one–celled ovary one basal placenta which is mostly globose, with few (S. mellodora) or many ovules (S. spinosa). In each cell of a 2–celled ovary one axial placenta with 2 to about 50 ovules, attached to the middle of the septum.
    Fruits
    Fruit a berry, 1–2–celled, globose or nearly so, mostly yellow to red, less often green when mature, sometimes blue–black (S. potatorum), immature often glaucous, glabrous, subtended by the persisting calyx, 0·8–18 cm. in diameter, 1–45–seeded. Pulp juicy, fleshy, often edible (S. cocculoides, S. madagascariensis, S. pungens, S. spinosa, and also in some small–fruited species). Wall thin and soft in small fruits, thicker and brittle in (mature) larger (very hard in nearly mature!!).
    Seeds
    Testa thick and osseous to very thin and membranaceous, rough and scabrid–pubescent (only when thick) or smooth and sericeous to glabrous. Seeds large, 0·5–3(5) cm. long, variably shaped, generally disc–shaped to subglobose. Endosperm horny, slightly diaphanous.
    Colleters
    Sometimes some colleters above the bracts, on the base of the sepals, and near the base of the petioles.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Andaman Is., Angola, Argentina Northeast, Bangladesh, Belize, Benin, Bolivia, Borneo, Botswana, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Burkina, Burundi, Cabinda, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Caprivi Strip, Central African Repu, Chad, China South-Central, China Southeast, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, French Guiana, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Guyana, Hainan, Honduras, India, Ivory Coast, Jawa, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Laos, Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaya, Mali, Maluku, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, New Guinea, New South Wales, Nicaragua, Nicobar Is., Niger, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Panamá, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Queensland, Rwanda, Santa Cruz Is., Senegal, Sierra Leone, Solomon Is., Somalia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Suriname, Swaziland, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Trinidad-Tobago, Uganda, Uruguay, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Vietnam, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Mauritius, Réunion, Seychelles, Taiwan

    Strychnos L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Apr 4, 2017 Forzza, R.C. [4821], Brazil K001062990
    Apr 4, 2017 Lobão, A.Q. [128], Brazil K001062987
    Jan 1, 2008 Luke, W.R.Q. [10485], Tanzania K000438762
    Jan 1, 2008 Luke, W.R.Q. [9571], Kenya K000438761
    Greenway, P.J. [8010], Congo, DRC 11157.000
    Gartlan, J.S. [26], Cameroon 7383.000
    Gartlan, J.S. [26], Cameroon K000028409
    Harris, D.J. [2331], Central African Republic 60054.000
    Harris, D.J. [2571], Cameroon 63050.000
    Harris, D.J. [1184], Central African Republic 63391.000
    Harris, D.J. [2618], Central African Republic 63734.000
    Letouzey, R. [13550], Cameroon K000028408
    Mori, S.A. [18609], French Guiana K001062992
    Heringer, E.P. [5775], Brazil K001062995
    Farney, C. [3283], Brazil K001062984
    Nee, M. [42550], Brazil K001062988
    Souza, J.P. [9184], Brazil K001062991
    Pollard, B.J. [546], Cameroon 76133.000
    Atkins, S. [PCD4665], Brazil K001062982
    Prance, G.T. [18828], Brazil K001062996
    Timberlake, J. [4914], Mozambique K000545264
    Lima, H.C. de [2841], Brazil K001062983
    Lima, H.C. de [2910], Brazil K001062993
    Lima, H.C. de [2902], Brazil K001062994
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 7500] K001127412
    Botelho, R.M. [72], Brazil K001062985
    Menezes, B.H. [23], Brazil K001062986
    Araujo, M.H.T. [317], Brazil K001062989

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 189 (1753)

    Accepted by

    • Aké Assi, L. (2001). Flore de la Côte-d'Ivoire: catalogue systématique, biogéographie et écologie. I Boissiera 57: 1-396.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • E. A. Bruce in Kew Bull. 10: 35, 127 (1955), 627 (1956), 11: 153, 267 (1956)
    • Duvigneaud in Bull. Soc. Bot. Belg. 85: 9 (1952)
    • —F.T.A. 4, 1: 517
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Sp. Pl. 1: 189 (1753)
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Duvign. in B.S.B.B. 85: 9 (1952)
    • Solered. in E. & P. Pf. 4 (2): 37 (1892)
    • L., Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 86 (1754)
    • Sp. Pl.: 179 (1753)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0