1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Chloris Sw.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Tropics & Subtropics.

    [FZ]

    Gramineae, T. Cope. Flora Zambesiaca 10:2. 1999

    Habit
    Inflorescence of few to many slender, typically digitate racemes, rarely these borne along an elongated axis.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets 2–4(6)-flowered, shortly pedicelled or subsessile, alternate in 2 rows on a tough axis, disarticulating above the glumes; glumes unequal, membranous, narrowly elliptic to lanceolate in profile, 1-nerved, acute, acuminate or with an awn-point, usually persistent; floret callus rounded or pungent; lowermost floret fertile; fertile lemma cartilaginous, laterally compressed and keeled, 3-nerved, usually ciliate on the margins and keel, entire or 2-lobed at the apex, with a subapical awn; 2nd–6th florets sterile, sometimes the second male or rarely fertile, embraced by or projecting from the side of the fertile floret; lemmas ± reduced or vestigial, awned or awnless, usually without a palea.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis ovoid, ellipsoid or obovoid, usually trigonous in section.
    [GB]

    nonem

    Habit
    Annual (13), or perennial (47). Rhizomes absent (56), or short (3). Stolons absent (42), or present (29). Culms erect (27/43), or geniculately ascending (26/43), or decumbent (10/43), or prostrate (1/43); robust (2/4), or slender (2/4); 5-50.41-300 cm long; firm (56), or wiry (2), or woody (1); without nodal roots (9/11), or rooting from lower nodes (11/11). Culm-internodes terete (1/2), or elliptical in section (1/2). Lateral branches lacking (2/3), or sparse (2/3), or ample (1/3). Ligule an eciliate membrane (3), or a ciliolate membrane (29), or a ciliate membrane (23), or a fringe of hairs (3), or absent (2). Leaf-blades filiform (1), or linear (58).
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence composed of racemes; not deciduous as a whole (55), or deciduous as a whole (4); subtended by an unspecialized leaf-sheath (58), or an inflated leaf-sheath (1); exserted (56), or embraced at base by subtending leaf (3). Peduncle persistent (55), or disarticulating (4). Racemes single (2), or paired (5), or digitate (54), or borne along a central axis (3); not compacted (54/56), or in a multilateral false spike (2/56); side by side (55/56), or appressed back to back (1/56); appressed (1), or erect (10), or ascending (41), or spreading (15), or radiating (4), or drooping (1), or deflexed (3); unilateral. Rhachis flattened (1/36), or angular (4/36), or subterete (31/36). Spikelet packing broadside to rhachis; crowded (7), or contiguous (46), or lax (6); 2 -rowed (1/1). Raceme-bases brief (57), or filiform (2). Spikelets appressed (17/22), or ascending (1/22), or spreading (2/22), or pectinate (1/22), or pendulous (1/22); solitary. Fertile spikelets sessile, or sessile and pedicelled (1), or pedicelled (1). Pedicels reduced to a stump (1/1).
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets, or 2 fertile florets (3); with a barren rhachilla extension (1), or with diminished florets at the apex (58). Spikelets lanceolate (1), or oblong (1), or ovate (1), or cuneate (56); laterally compressed; 1.5-3.116-6.2 mm long; falling entire (4), or breaking up at maturity (55); deciduous with accessory branch structures (4/4); disarticulating below each fertile floret (55/55). Floret callus brief (56), or evident (3); glabrous (1/57), or pubescent (18/57), or pilose (5/57), or bearded (33/57); obtuse (56), or acute (2), or pungent (1).
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets, or 2 fertile florets (3); with a barren rhachilla extension (1), or with diminished florets at the apex (58). Spikelets lanceolate (1), or oblong (1), or ovate (1), or cuneate (56); laterally compressed; 1.5-3.116-6.2 mm long; falling entire (4), or breaking up at maturity (55); deciduous with accessory branch structures (4/4); disarticulating below each fertile floret (55/55). Floret callus brief (56), or evident (3); glabrous (1/57), or pubescent (18/57), or pilose (5/57), or bearded (33/57); obtuse (56), or acute (2), or pungent (1).
    Glume
    Glumes persistent (55/55); shorter than spikelet (29), or reaching apex of florets (23), or exceeding apex of florets (20); thinner than fertile lemma; parallel to lemmas (1), or gaping (58). Lower glume lanceolate (56), or ovate (8); 0.4-0.6381-1 length of upper glume; hyaline (1), or membranous (56), or chartaceous (1), or scarious (1); 1-keeled; 1 -veined. Lower glume lateral veins absent. Lower glume apex acute (54), or acuminate (8); muticous (58), or mucronate (1). Upper glume lanceolate (55), or oblong (1), or ovate (6), or obovate (1); 0.3-0.9897-2 length of adjacent fertile lemma; hyaline (1), or membranous (57), or scarious (1); with undifferentiated margins (57), or hyaline margins (2); 1-keeled; 1 -veined. Upper glume apex entire (58), or erose (1); truncate (1), or obtuse (1), or acute (50), or acuminate (6), or setaceously attenuate (4); muticous (55), or mucronate (5).
    Florets
    Fertile lemma linear (2), or lanceolate (15), or elliptic (37), or oblong (3), or ovate (16), or obovate (5); laterally compressed; not gibbous (57), or gibbous (2); lanceolate in profile (6/21), or elliptic in profile (8/21), or oblong in profile (2/21), or ovate in profile (5/21); cartilaginous (58), or coriaceous (1); of similar consistency on margins (58), or much thinner on margins (1); keeled; wingless (58), or winged on margins (1); 3 -veined. Lemma midvein without distinctive roughness (54), or scaberulous (4), or scabrous (2); eciliate (34), or ciliolate (3), or ciliate (20), or pubescent (6). Lemma surface smooth (54), or scabrous (5), or tuberculate (1); without grooves (58), or with 2 longitudinal grooves (1); glabrous (54), or puberulous (2), or pubescent (7), or pilose (3); hairy on back (8/10), or between veins (2/10); with simple hairs (8/10), or tubercle-based hairs (1/10), or clavate hairs (1/10); without hair tufts (58), or with conspicuous apical hairs (1). Lemma margins flat (58), or involute (1); eciliate (11), or ciliolate (7), or ciliate (36), or pubescent (8). Lemma apex entire (52), or dentate (6), or lobed (1); 2 -fid (7/7); incised 0.1-0.2017-0.33 of lemma length; emarginate (2/46), or truncate (2/46), or obtuse (19/46), or acute (26/46), or acuminate (2/46); muticous (3), or mucronate (3), or awned (58); 1 -awned (56/58), or 3 -awned (2/58). Principal lemma awn apical (2), or subapical (49), or from a sinus (7), or dorsal (1); straight, or curved (1). Lateral lemma awns shorter than principal (2/2). Palea 1 length of lemma; 2 -veined (3/3). Palea keels separated (58), or approximate (1); eciliate (57), or ciliolate (2). Apical sterile florets 1 in number (34/58), or 2 in number (16/58), or 3 in number (13/58), or 4 in number (4/58), or 5 in number (1/58); male (2/58), or barren (57/58); separate (39/58), or in a clump (19/58); linear (2/58), or lanceolate (10/58), or elliptic (10/58), or oblong (15/58), or ovate (1/58), or orbicular (1/58), or cuneate (23/58). Apical sterile lemmas muticous (8/58), or mucronate (2/58), or awned (54/58).
    Flowers
    Lodicules 2 (58/58); fleshy (58/58). Anthers 3. Stigmas 2 (58/58).
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp (58), or tardily free pericarp (1); fusiform (3/34), or ellipsoid (26/34), or oblong (1/34), or ovoid (4/34), or obovoid (6/34); laterally compressed (1/33), or dorsally compressed (32/33); trigonous (56/56); smooth (1/1); apex unappendaged (1/1). Embryo 0.66-0.705-0.75 length of caryopsis. Hilum punctiform (23/23).
    Distribution
    Africa (21), or Temperate Asia (8), or Tropical Asia (13), or Australasia (11), or Pacific (6), or North America (13), or South America (26).
    [FTEA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips And S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

    Habit
    Tufted, rhizomatous or stoloniferous perennials or annuals
    Leaves
    Leaf-blades linear, flat or folded, acute to acuminate or obtuse; ligule membranous, short, ciliolate; sheaths rounded or keeled and flabellate
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence of few–many slender, typically digitate spikes
    Spikelets
    Spikelets 2–4(–6)-flowered, shortly pedicelled or subsessile, alternate, in 2 rows on a tough rhachis; glumes unequal, membranous, usually lanceolate in side view, 1-nerved, acute, acuminate or with an awn-point, usually persistent; lowest floret hermaphrodite; lemma cartilaginous (coriaceous in C. lamproparia), mostly laterally compressed and keeled, usually ciliate on the margins and keel, entire or 2-lobed at the apex with a subapical awn; callus rounded or pungent, ciliate; 2nd–6th florets sterile, sometimes ♂, rarely hermaphrodite, embraced by or projecting from the side of the lowest floret; lemmas ± reduced or vestigial, awned or awnless; paleas usually absent
    Fruits
    Caryopsis ellipsoid to linear, usually trigonous, occasionally dorsally compressed.
    [GB]

    nonem

    Habit
    Perennial. Stolons present. Culms decumbent; 10-90 cm long. Ligule a ciliate membrane.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence composed of racemes. Racemes digitate; unilateral. Rhachis deciduous from axis; angular. Spikelet packing broadside to rhachis; crowded. Spikelets appressed; solitary. Fertile spikelets sessile.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 4-8 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets elliptic, or oblong; laterally compressed; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating above glumes but not between florets.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 4-8 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets elliptic, or oblong; laterally compressed; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating above glumes but not between florets.
    Glume
    Glumes persistent; shorter than spikelet; thinner than fertile lemma. Lower glume oblong; 0.5 length of upper glume; 1-keeled; 1 -veined. Lower glume lateral veins absent. Lower glume apex acute. Upper glume oblong; 0.7 length of adjacent fertile lemma; membranous; 1-keeled; 3 -veined. Upper glume apex acute.
    Florets
    Fertile lemma ovate; chartaceous; keeled; 3 -veined. Lemma surface glabrous, or pilose. Lemma margins pubescent. Lemma apex acute; muticous, or mucronate. Palea keels ciliate. Apical sterile florets resembling fertile though underdeveloped.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with free soft pericarp.
    Distribution
    Africa, or Temperate Asia, or Tropical Asia.
    [FTEA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips And S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

    Habit
    Stoloniferous perennials
    Leaves
    Leaf-blades linear, flat, tapering to a fine acuminate tip; ligule membranous, truncate
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence composed of several slender racemes arranged digitately at the top of the culm or scattered along a central axis
    Spikelets
    Spikelets several-flowered, plump, subsessile or shortly pedicelled, disarticulating above the glumes but not between the florets; glumes persistent, membranous, unequal, shorter than the lemmas; lemmas broad, rounded on the back, 5–11-nerved with the nerves slightly shorter than the lemma, tough and cartilaginous at least in part, appressed villous with the hairs usually ± concentrated in 3–6 longitudinal rows, the central nerve extended into a stout awn or awn-point normally arising from the back below the emarginate or 2-lobed tip, rarely arising from the sinus
    Fruits
    Grain smooth, light brown, strongly dorso-ventrally flattened, enclosed within a free hyaline pericarp
    Distribution
    Species 2; eastern and south-eastern Africa.
    [FZ]

    Gramineae, T. Cope. Flora Zambesiaca 10:2. 1999

    Habit
    Inflorescence composed of several slender racemes, these digitate or subdigitate at the top of the culm or scattered along a central axis.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets several-flowered, plump, subsessile or shortly pedicelled, alternate in 2 rows, disarticulating above the glumes but not between the florets, the 2–4 lowermost florets fertile, the remainder progressively smaller and sterile; glumes persistent, membranous, unequal, shorter than the lemmas; lemmas broad, dorsally rounded, 5–11-nerved, with the lateral nerves confluent at the base, the inner ones confluent at the apex, the body tough and cartilaginous at least in part, appressed clavate-villous with the hairs usually concentrated in 3–6 longitudinal rows, the central nerve extended into a short awn or awn-point normally arising from the back below the emarginate or 2-lobed apex, rarely from the sinus.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis strongly flattened, with free pericarp.
    [GB]

    nonem

    Habit
    Perennial. Stolons present. Culms erect (1), or decumbent; 22-47.5-75 cm long. Ligule an eciliate membrane.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence composed of racemes. Racemes digitate (1), or borne along a central axis (1); unilateral. Rhachis subterete. Spikelet packing broadside to rhachis; contiguous (1), or lax (1); 2 -rowed (1/1). Spikelets solitary. Fertile spikelets sessile (1), or pedicelled (1).
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 4-7 fertile florets, or 8-10 fertile florets (1); with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets elliptic (1), or orbicular (1), or cuneate (1); laterally compressed; 5-7.1-11 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating above glumes but not between florets. Floret callus truncate.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 4-7 fertile florets, or 8-10 fertile florets (1); with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets elliptic (1), or orbicular (1), or cuneate (1); laterally compressed; 5-7.1-11 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating above glumes but not between florets. Floret callus truncate.
    Glume
    Glumes persistent; shorter than spikelet; thinner than fertile lemma. Lower glume lanceolate; 0.6-0.675-0.8 length of upper glume; membranous; without keels (1), or 1-keeled (1); 0 -veined (1), or 1 -veined. Lower glume lateral veins absent. Lower glume apex acute (1), or acuminate (1). Upper glume oblong (1), or ovate (1); 0.6-0.675-0.8 length of adjacent fertile lemma; membranous; without keels (1), or 1-keeled (1); 1-3 -veined (1). Upper glume apex emarginate (1), or obtuse (1), or acute (1).
    Florets
    Fertile lemma elliptic (1), or ovate (1), or obovate (1); chartaceous (1), or coriaceous (1); without keel; 5-6 -veined (1), or 7 -veined, or 8-11 -veined (1). Lemma lateral veins obscure (1), or distinct (1). Lemma surface pubescent; hairy on back (1), or between veins (1); with simple hairs (1), or capitate hairs (1). Lemma apex entire (1), or dentate (1); 2 -fid (1/1); emarginate (1/1); awned; 1 -awned. Principal lemma awn subapical; straight (1), or flexuous (1). Palea 2 -veined. Palea keels wingless (1), or winged (1); ciliolate (1), or ciliate (1). Palea surface glabrous (1), or pubescent (1). Apical sterile florets resembling fertile though underdeveloped.
    Flowers
    Lodicules 2; fleshy.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with free soft pericarp; ellipsoid; flattened; biconvex; smooth.
    Distribution
    Africa.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Afghanistan, Alabama, Aldabra, Algeria, Andaman Is., Angola, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Argentina South, Arizona, Arkansas, Aruba, Assam, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Belize, Benin, Bermuda, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Burkina, Burundi, California, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Caprivi Strip, Central African Repu, Central American Pac, Chad, Chile Central, Chile North, China Southeast, Colombia, Colorado, Congo, Connecticut, Costa Rica, Cuba, Delaware, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Florida, Free State, French Guiana, Gabon, Galápagos, Gambia, Georgia, Ghana, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Gulf States, Guyana, Hainan, Haiti, Honduras, Illinois, India, Indiana, Iowa, Iran, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Jawa, Kansas, Kentucky, Kenya, Kuwait, KwaZulu-Natal, Leeward Is., Lesotho, Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Libya, Louisiana, Madagascar, Madeira, Maine, Malawi, Malaya, Mali, Maluku, Maryland, Masachusettes, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Michigan, Mississippi, Missouri, Missouri, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nebraska, Netherlands Antilles, Nevada, New Guinea, New Jersey, New Mexico, New South Wales, New York, Nicaragua, Nicobar Is., Niger, Nigeria, North Carolina, North Dakota, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oman, Pakistan, Panamá, Paraguay, Pennsylvania, Peru, Philippines, Puerto Rico, Queensland, Rodrigues, Rwanda, Réunion, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Socotra, Somalia, South Australia, South Carolina, South Dakota, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Taiwan, Tanzania, Tennessee, Texas, Thailand, Togo, Trinidad-Tobago, Uganda, Utah, Venezuela, Victoria, Vietnam, Virginia, West Himalaya, Western Australia, Windward Is., Wyoming, Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Amur, Ascension, Belgium, Caroline Is., Cayman Is., Chagos Archipelago, China North-Central, China South-Central, Christmas I., Cocos (Keeling) Is., Cook Is., Czechoslovakia, Desventurados Is., East Himalaya, Easter Is., Fiji, Gilbert Is., Hawaii, Inner Mongolia, Iraq, Japan, Kazakhstan, Kazan-retto, Kermadec Is., Khabarovsk, Korea, Lebanon-Syria, Manchuria, Marianas, Marquesas, Marshall Is., Mongolia, Mozambique Channel I, Nansei-shoto, Nauru, Nepal, New Caledonia, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Niue, Norfolk Is., North Caucasus, Ogasawara-shoto, Oregon, Palestine, Phoenix Is., Primorye, Qinghai, Samoa, Sardegna, Society Is., Solomon Is., Spain, St.Helena, Sumatera, Tibet, Tokelau-Manihiki, Tonga, Transcaucasus, Tuamotu, Tunisia, Turks-Caicos Is., Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Venezuelan Antilles, Wake I., Wallis-Futuna Is., Xinjiang

    Chloris Sw. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Giulietti, A.M. [1694], Brazil K001102058
    Longhi-Wagner, H.M. [9027], Brazil K001102060
    Castellanos, A. [25005], Brazil K001102059
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 3812] K001117263
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 3812] K001117264
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 3813], Myanmar K001117270
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 3808] K001117258
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 3809] K001117259
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 3810], India K001117260
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 3811] K001117261
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 3811] K001117262
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 3812] K001117265
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 3812], India K001117266
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 3812] K001117267
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 3812] K001117268
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 3812] K001117269

    First published in Prodr. Veg. Ind. Occ.: 25 (1788)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R.H.A. (2011). World checklist of selected plant families published update Facilitated by the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • Prod. Veg. Ind. Occ. 25 (1788).
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • D.E. Anderson in Brigham Young Univ. Sci. Bull., Biol. Ser. 19, 2: 1–133 (1974).
    • Prodr.: 25 (1788).
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Prod. Veg. Ind. Occ.: 25 (1788)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0