1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Eustachys Desv.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Ethiopia to S. Africa and New Guinea, E. U.S.A. to Tropical & Subtropical America.

    [FZ]

    Gramineae, T. Cope. Flora Zambesiaca 10:2. 1999

    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence of 2–many digitate 1-sided racemes bearing densely packed spikelets.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets 2(3)-flowered, sessile, alternate in 2 rows on a tough axis, disarticulating above the glumes; glumes unequal, membranous, lanceolate to oblong in profile, shorter than the spikelet, 1-nerved, the superior longer and broader than the inferior and with a short straight awn from just below the apex; lowermost floret fertile; fertile lemma elliptic in profile, dark or golden-brown, cartilaginous to chartaceous, laterally compressed and keeled, acute to emarginate, with or without a short awn from just below the membranous apex; uppermost floret reduced to a small clavate lemma (sometimes with a minute palea) crowning the rhachilla; rarely an intermediate male floret present.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis obovoid, plump.
    [GB]

    nonem

    Habit
    Perennial. Rhizomes absent (12), or short (1). Stolons absent (11), or present (2). Culms erect (10/10), or decumbent (1/10); robust (1/1); 10-67.61-150 cm long; rooting from lower nodes (1/1). Culm-internodes elliptical in section (3/3). Lateral branches lacking (4/4). Ligule a ciliolate membrane (1), or a ciliate membrane (5), or a fringe of hairs (7).
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence composed of racemes; exserted, or embraced at base by subtending leaf (1). Racemes paired (2), or digitate; erect (2), or ascending (11); unilateral. Rhachis angular (8/9), or semiterete (1/9). Spikelet packing broadside to rhachis; crowded; 1 -rowed (3/5), or 2 -rowed (2/5). Spikelets pectinate; solitary. Fertile spikelets sessile.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets obovate; laterally compressed; 0.996-2.4-4.2 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Floret callus glabrous (6), or pubescent (3), or pilose (4).
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets obovate; laterally compressed; 0.996-2.4-4.2 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Floret callus glabrous (6), or pubescent (3), or pilose (4).
    Glume
    Glumes persistent; shorter than spikelet (12), or exceeding apex of florets (1); thinner than fertile lemma; gaping. Lower glume lanceolate (10), or elliptic (2), or ovate (1); 0.5-0.76-0.9 length of upper glume; membranous; without keels (10), or 1-keeled (3); 1 -veined. Lower glume lateral veins absent. Lower glume surface glabrous (11), or puberulous (2). Lower glume apex emarginate (2), or obtuse (1), or acute (11); muticous (12), or mucronate (2). Upper glume lanceolate (1), or oblong (12); 0.5-0.8004-1.25 length of adjacent fertile lemma; membranous; without keels; 1 -veined. Upper glume surface smooth (10), or asperulous (1), or scabrous (2); glabrous (10), or puberulous (3). Upper glume apex entire (4), or lobed (9); 2 -fid (9/9); emarginate (1), or truncate (2), or obtuse (10), or acute (1); mucronate (2), or awned (12); 1 -awned (12/12). Upper glume awn terminal (9), or subapical (3), or oblique (1).
    Florets
    Fertile lemma elliptic (1), or ovate (9), or oblate (3); laterally compressed; not gibbous (12), or gibbous (1); chartaceous (10), or coriaceous (3); of similar consistency above (12), or much thinner above (1); keeled; 3 -veined. Lemma midvein eciliate (7), or ciliolate (1), or ciliate (4), or pubescent (2). Lemma surface smooth (11), or asperulous (2); glabrous (12), or pubescent (2). Lemma margins eciliate (2), or ciliate (8), or pubescent (4). Lemma apex emarginate (3), or obtuse (4), or acute (6); muticous (9), or mucronate (8), or awned (1); 1 -awned (1/1). Principal lemma awn apical (7/8), or subapical (1/8). Palea 0.9-0.95-1 length of lemma; 2 -veined. Palea keels smooth (11), or scaberulous (3); eciliate (12), or ciliolate (2). Apical sterile florets 1 in number, or 2 in number (1); barren; elliptic (2), or oblong (5), or cuneate (6). Apical sterile lemmas muticous (11), or mucronate (1), or awned (2).
    Flowers
    Lodicules 2 (2/2). Anthers 3 (6/6).
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp (4/5), or tardily free pericarp (1/5); ellipsoid (2/2); isodiametric (1/1); trigonous (5/5). Embryo 0.5 length of caryopsis. Hilum punctiform (3/3).
    Distribution
    Africa (1), or Temperate Asia (2), or Tropical Asia (1), or Australasia (1), or Pacific (1), or North America (5), or South America (9).
    [FTEA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips And S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

    Habit
    Annuals or perennials
    Leaves
    Leaf-blades flat or folded, obtuse, occasionally acuminate; sheaths strongly keeled, flabellate; ligule a fringe of hairs
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence terminal, consisting of 2–many digitate 1-sided spikes bearing densely packed spikelets
    Spikelets
    Spikelets 2-flowered (rarely an intermediate ♂ floret may be present), obovate, dark or golden brown, the lower floret hermaphrodite, the upper barren; glumes 2, lanceolate to oblong in side view, shorter than the spikelet, membranous, subequal, the upper broader and with a short straight awn from just below the apex; fertile lemma broadly ovate (when flattened), cartilaginous to chartaceous, laterally compressed and sharply keeled, acute to emarginate with or without a short awn from just below the membranous apex; upper floret reduced to a small clavate lemma (sometimes accompanied by a tiny palea) crowning the rhachilla
    Fruits
    Caryopsis obovoid, plump.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Alabama, Angola, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Argentina South, Bahamas, Belize, Bermuda, Bolivia, Borneo, Botswana, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Cape Provinces, Cayman Is., Chad, China Southeast, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Florida, Free State, Georgia, Hainan, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Leeward Is., Lesotho, Louisiana, Malawi, Malaya, Maluku, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Southeast, Mississippi, Mozambique, Namibia, New Guinea, Nicaragua, North Carolina, Northern Provinces, Oman, Panamá, Paraguay, Pennsylvania, Peru, Philippines, Puerto Rico, Rwanda, Somalia, South Carolina, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Swaziland, Taiwan, Tanzania, Texas, Thailand, Trinidad-Tobago, Turks-Caicos Is., Uganda, Uruguay, Vietnam, Windward Is., Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    California, Caroline Is., Chagos Archipelago, Gilbert Is., Hawaii, Marianas, Marshall Is., Myanmar, New South Wales, New York, Queensland, South Australia, Western Australia

    Eustachys Desv. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Longhi-Wagner, H.M. [9032], Brazil K001101682
    Longhi-Wagner, H.M. [9017], Brazil K001101683

    First published in Nouv. Bull. Sci. Soc. Philom. Paris 2: 188 (1810)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R.H.A. (2011). World checklist of selected plant families published update Facilitated by the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Literature

    Flora Zambesiaca
    • in Nouv. Bull. Sci. Soc. Philom. Paris 2: 188 (1810).
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • in Nouv. Bull. Soc. Philom. Paris 2: 188 (1810)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0