1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Ischaemum L.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Tropics & Subtropics.

    [FTEA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips And S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

    Habit
    Perennials, often decumbent, sometimes annuals
    Leaves
    Leaf-blades linear; ligule membranous
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence of paired or digitate racemes, the former often interlocked back to back, terminal or axillary; internodes and pedicels clavate to inflated
    Sessile
    Sessile spikelet dorsally compressed; callus obtuse and inserted in the concave top of the internode; lower glume chartaceous to coriaceous, convex to concave, laterally 2-keeled, sometimes winged; upper glume awned or not; lower floret ♂ with a palea; upper lemma bifid, passing between the teeth into a glabrous awn (rarely awnless)
    Fruits
    Caryopsis oblong to lanceolate, dorsally compressed
    Spikelets
    Pedicelled spikelet as large as the sessile or much smaller, often asymmetrical. Sessile spikelet dorsally compressed; callus obtuse and inserted in the concave top of the internode; lower glume chartaceous to coriaceous, convex to concave, laterally 2-keeled, sometimes winged; upper glume awned or not; lower floret ♂ with a palea; upper lemma bifid, passing between the teeth into a glabrous awn (rarely awnless)
    Pedicelled
    Pedicelled spikelet as large as the sessile or much smaller, often asymmetrical.
    [FZ]

    Gramineae, T. A. Cope. Flora Zambesiaca 10:4. 2002

    Habit
    Perennials, sometimes annuals, often decumbent.
    Leaf sheaths
    Leaf sheaths mostly with auricles; ligule membranous; leaf laminas linear, sometimes sagittate or falsely petiolate at the base.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence of paired, sometimes solitary or digitate, 1-sided racemes, those of a pair often interlocked back to back and mimicking a solitary raceme, terminal or axillary; rhachis internodes and pedicels stoutly linear to clavate or inflated, often exposed on the back of the raceme as a U- or V-shaped segment, sometimes the pedicels so short that the spikelets of a pair appear to be side by side.
    Spikelets
    Sessile spikelet dorsally compressed; callus obtuse and inserted in the concave top of the internode; inferior glume chartaceous to coriaceous, convex to concave on the back, laterally 2-keeled, often rugose, sometimes winged; superior glume awned or awnless; inferior floret male, rarely barren, with a palea; superior lemma bifid, passing between the teeth into a glabrous awn (rarely awnless). Pedicelled spikelet as large as the sessile spikelet or much smaller, often asymmetrical.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis oblong to lanceolate, dorsally compressed.
    [GB]

    nonem

    Habit
    Annual (28), or perennial (52). Rhizomes absent (74), or short (4), or elongated (2). Stolons absent (75), or present (5). Culms erect (27/66), or geniculately ascending (19/66), or decumbent (26/66), or prostrate (9/66), or rambling (9/66); robust (2/8), or slender (4/8), or weak (2/8); 5-63.92-300 cm long; firm (76), or wiry (3), or woody (1); without nodal roots (2/27), or with prop roots (2/27), or rooting from lower nodes (25/27). Culm-internodes terete (2/3), or channelled (2/3). Culm-nodes constricted (1/2), or swollen (1/2). Lateral branches lacking (10/27), or sparse (7/27), or ample (14/27). Leaf-sheath auricles absent (72), or erect (8). Ligule an eciliate membrane (68), or a ciliolate membrane (12), or a fringe of hairs (1). Leaf-blade base without a false petiole (63), or with a brief petiole-like connection to sheath (5), or with a false petiole (17). Leaf-blades linear (47), or lanceolate (44), or elliptic (4), or oblong (3), or ovate (2); herbaceous (79), or coriaceous (1); stiff (1), or firm (77), or flaccid (2). Leaf-blade margins cartilaginous (1/1).
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence composed of racemes; terminal (76), or terminal and axillary (4); subtended by an unspecialized leaf-sheath (71), or an inflated leaf-sheath (2), or a spatheole (7); exserted (78), or embraced at base by subtending leaf (2), or enclosed (3). Spatheole lanceolate (5/5). Racemes single (8), or paired (71), or digitate (10); side by side (31/75), or appressed back to back (44/75); unilateral (2/2); bearing 8-9 fertile spikelets on each (1/2), or 10-12 fertile spikelets on each (2/2), or 13-14 fertile spikelets on each (1/2). Rhachis fragile at the nodes; angular (68/76), or subterete (4/76), or semiterete (4/76). Rhachis internodes linear (5), or columnar (9), or oblong (35), or clavate (15), or cuneate (8), or pyriform (1), or inflated (7); unspecialized (23), or flat and forming a U or V shape with the pedicel in rear view (56), or with a basal circular pore between internode and pedicel (4), or with the lower often bearing triads (2). Rhachis internode tip transverse (79), or oblique (1); cupuliform (79), or notched (1). Spikelets in pairs. Fertile spikelets sessile (78), or sessile and pedicelled (3); 1 in the cluster (78), or 2 in the cluster (3). Companion sterile spikelets pedicelled (78/78); 0 in the cluster (1/78), or 1 in the cluster (78/78). Pedicels linear (5/79), or columnar (9/79), or oblong (48/79), or narrowly elliptic (1/79), or clavate (8/79), or cuneate (6/79), or pyriform (1/79), or inflated (1/79).
    Sterile
    Basal sterile spikelets absent (78), or well-developed (2). Companion sterile spikelets absent (2), or represented by single glumes (2), or rudimentary (6), or well-developed (76); persistent (2/76), or separately deciduous (76/76). Companion sterile spikelet callus indistinct (77/78), or oblong (1/78). Companion sterile spikelet glumes muticous (36/47), or mucronate (1/47), or awned (10/47).
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets linear (1), or lanceolate (19), or elliptic (21), or oblong (39), or ovate (13), or obovate (2), or rhomboid (1); laterally compressed (1), or dorsally compressed (79); 2.5-6.055-12 mm long; falling entire; deciduous from the base (2), or with accessory branch structures. Spikelet callus brief (39), or square (11), or oblong (27), or cuneate (3); glabrous (9/58), or pubescent (18/58), or pilose (21/58), or bearded (13/58); base truncate (65), or obtuse (15); inserted. Basal sterile spikelets absent (78), or well-developed (2). Companion sterile spikelets absent (2), or represented by single glumes (2), or rudimentary (6), or well-developed (76); persistent (2/76), or separately deciduous (76/76). Companion sterile spikelet callus indistinct (77/78), or oblong (1/78). Companion sterile spikelet glumes muticous (36/47), or mucronate (1/47), or awned (10/47).
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets linear (1), or lanceolate (19), or elliptic (21), or oblong (39), or ovate (13), or obovate (2), or rhomboid (1); laterally compressed (1), or dorsally compressed (79); 2.5-6.055-12 mm long; falling entire; deciduous from the base (2), or with accessory branch structures. Spikelet callus brief (39), or square (11), or oblong (27), or cuneate (3); glabrous (9/58), or pubescent (18/58), or pilose (21/58), or bearded (13/58); base truncate (65), or obtuse (15); inserted.
    Glume
    Glumes reaching apex of florets (2), or exceeding apex of florets (78); firmer than fertile lemma. Lower glume subulate (1), or lanceolate (11), or elliptic (14), or oblong (46), or ovate (20), or obovate (1); membranous (1), or chartaceous (12), or cartilaginous (1), or coriaceous (66), or indurate (1); without keels (1), or 2-keeled (79); wingless (44), or winged on keel (38); 1-9-21 -veined. Lower glume lateral veins obscure (6), or distinct (74); intercarinal veins distinct (1/1). Lower glume surface convex (48), or flat (33), or concave (2); smooth (46), or asperulous (6), or scabrous (3), or muricate (11), or rugose (20); not waisted (77), or laterally waisted (3); glabrous (60), or puberulous (1), or pubescent (6), or pilose (15), or hirsute (3), or villous (9), or woolly (1); without hair tufts (78), or with marginal tufts of hair (1), or with transverse tufts of hair (1). Lower glume apex entire (49), or erose (1), or dentate (31); 2 -fid (28/31), or 3 -fid (3/31); emarginate (5/34), or truncate (1/34), or obtuse (8/34), or acute (20/34), or acuminate (3/34), or attenuate (1/34); muticous (74), or mucronate (1), or awned (6). Upper glume lanceolate (62), or elliptic (6), or oblong (3), or ovate (14); membranous (1), or chartaceous (19), or cartilaginous (1), or coriaceous (60); with undifferentiated margins (78), or hyaline margins (1), or membranous margins (1); without keels (1), or 1-keeled (79); wingless (58), or winged on keel (22); 1 -veined (1/49), or 3 -veined (25/49), or 4 -veined (9/49), or 5 -veined (25/49), or 6 -veined (2/49), or 7 -veined (7/49), or 8-9 -veined (2/49). Upper glume primary vein eciliate (73), or ciliolate (1), or ciliate (6). Upper glume lateral veins with cross-veins (1/1). Upper glume surface smooth (68), or asperulous (4), or scabrous (6), or tuberculate (1), or rugose (1); glabrous (68), or puberulous (2), or pubescent (3), or pilose (4), or hirsute (1), or villous (2); without hair tufts (77), or with marginal tufts of hair (1), or with a dorsal tuft of hair (2). Upper glume apex entire (76), or dentate (3), or lobed (1); 2 -fid (4/4); emarginate (2/35), or obtuse (4/35), or acute (8/35), or acuminate (21/35), or attenuate (2/35), or setaceously attenuate (1/35); muticous (58), or mucronate (5), or awned (19); 1 -awned (17/18), or 2 -awned (1/18).
    Florets
    Basal sterile florets male (78), or barren (2); with palea (79), or without significant palea (1). Lemma of lower sterile floret lanceolate (57), or elliptic (9), or oblong (16), or ovate (11); hyaline (27), or membranous (53); 1-2 -veined (4/50), or 3 -veined (43/50), or 4 -veined (11/50), or 5 -veined (12/50), or 7 -veined (2/50); truncate (2/25), or obtuse (1/25), or acute (14/25), or acuminate (9/25). Palea of lower sterile floret wingless (78/79), or winged on keels (1/79). Fertile lemma linear (1), or lanceolate (8), or elliptic (4), or oblong (64), or ovate (3); hyaline (21), or membranous (59); without keel; wingless (79), or winged on margins (1); 1 -veined (2/39), or 3 -veined (34/39), or 4 -veined (3/39), or 5 -veined (6/39). Lemma lateral veins obscure (4/4). Lemma margins eciliate (60), or ciliolate (9), or ciliate (11). Lemma apex entire (3), or dentate (13), or lobed (67); 2 -fid (79/79); incised 0.1-0.471-0.75 of lemma length; muticous (8), or mucronate (3), or awned (75), or awned only on distal spikelets (1); 1 -awned (76/76). Principal lemma awn apical (3/78), or from a sinus (76/78); straight (6/78), or curved (3/78), or flexuous (1/78), or geniculate (70/78). Palea present (79), or absent or minute (1); 0.33-0.9752-1 length of lemma; hyaline (4/79), or membranous (75/79); 0 -veined (1/4), or 2 -veined (3/4); without keels (1/79), or 2-keeled (78/79). Palea keels smooth (77/78), or scaberulous (1/78).
    Flowers
    Lodicules 2 (14/14); free (13/14), or adnate to palea (1/14). Anthers 3 (70/70).
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp (5/5); ellipsoid (2/5), or oblong (3/5), or obovoid (1/5); dorsally compressed (1/1).
    Distribution
    Africa (12), or Temperate Asia (14), or Tropical Asia (65), or Australasia (9), or Pacific (10), or North America (2), or South America (7).

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Andaman Is., Angola, Argentina Northeast, Assam, Bangladesh, Belize, Bismarck Archipelago, Borneo, Botswana, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Burkina, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Caroline Is., Chad, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Christmas I., Cocos (Keeling) Is., Colombia, Comoros, Cook Is., Costa Rica, Djibouti, East Himalaya, Ecuador, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, French Guiana, Gambia, Ghana, Guatemala, Guinea, Guyana, Hainan, Hawaii, Honduras, India, Ivory Coast, Japan, Jawa, Kenya, Korea, KwaZulu-Natal, Laccadive Is., Laos, Leeward Is., Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaya, Maldives, Mali, Maluku, Manchuria, Marianas, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nansei-shoto, Nepal, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New South Wales, Nicaragua, Nicobar Is., Niger, Nigeria, Niue, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Ogasawara-shoto, Pakistan, Panamá, Peru, Philippines, Queensland, Réunion, Samoa, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Society Is., Socotra, Solomon Is., Somalia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Suriname, Swaziland, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad-Tobago, Uganda, Uruguay, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Wallis-Futuna Is., West Himalaya, Western Australia, Windward Is., Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Aldabra, Brazil West-Central, Central American Pac, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Haiti, Jamaica, Maryland, Rodrigues, Saudi Arabia

    Ischaemum L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8866] K001131679
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8866] K001131680

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 1049 (1753)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R.H.A. (2011). World checklist of selected plant families published update Facilitated by the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • F.T.A. 9: 28 (1917).
    • Gen. Pl. ed. 5, 469 (1754)
    • Sp. Pl. 1049 (1753)
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 469 (1754).
    • Sp. Pl. 2: 1049 (1753)
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • L., Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 469 (1754)
    • Sp. Pl.: 1049 (1753)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0