1. Santalaceae R.Br.

    1. This family is accepted.

[FTEA]

Santalaceae, P.M. Polhill, B.A., Ph.D., F.L.S.. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2005

Habit
Herbs, shrubs or trees, hemiparasitic
Leaves
Leaves often alternate, sometimes opposite, petiolate or sessile, simple, entire, sometimes reduced to scales, exstipulate
Flowers
Flowers in various sorts of essentially cymose inflorescences, often with a small dichasium axillary to each bract, small, often greenish, hermaphrodite or unisexual (then plants monoecious or dioecious), regular, monochlamydeous, the lobes distinct (in tropical African genera), forming a valvate 3–5-lobed fleshy cup or tube
Androecium
Stamens as many as and opposite the lobes, inserted at or below their base; anthers (in tropical African genera) with 2 parallel thecae opening by longitudinal slits
Nectaries
Disk epigynous, intrastaminal, lobed, often lining at least the lower part of the perianth tube
Gynoecium
Ovary (in tropical African genera) inferior, unilocular; placenta erect, free-central with 2–3 pendulous ovules; style simple, cylindric or sometimes nearly wanting; stigma terminal, capitate or 2–3(–5)-lobed
Fruits
Fruit indehiscent, dry or fleshy (nut or drupe)
Seeds
Seed solitary; testa obsolete; cotyledons surrounded by copious fleshy, oily or starchy endosperm
[FZ]

Flora Zambesiaca. Vol. 9, Part 3. Polygonaceae-Myriaceae. Pope GV, Polhill RM, Martins ES. 2006.

Stamens
Stamens as many as and opposite the lobes, inserted at or below their base; anthers (in genera of the Flora Zambesiaca area) with 2 parallel thecae opening by longitudinal slits
Disc
Disk epigynous, intrastaminal, lobed, often lining at least the lower part of the perianth tube
Ovary
Ovary (in genera of the Flora Zambesiaca area) inferior, unilocular, placenta erect, free-central with 2–3 pendulous ovules; style simple, cylindric or sometimes nearly wanting; stigma terminal, capitate or 2–3(5)-lobed
Seeds
Seed solitary; testa obsolete; cotyledons surrounded by copious fleshy, oily or starchy endosperm. Seed solitary; testa obsolete; cotyledons surrounded by copious fleshy, oily or starchy endosperm
Note
Sandalwood and sandalwood oil is obtained from Santalum album L. and allied species from India; Osyris compressa is used in tanning.
Distribution
A family of about 35 genera and at least 400 species, nearly cosmopolitan, but commonest in tropical and subtropical regions; 6 genera in southern Africa (2 endemic to Cape Province). By far the largest genus is Thesium, which accounts for more than half
Habit
Herbs, shrubs or trees, hemiparasitic Herbs, shrubs or trees, hemiparasitic. Leaves often alternate, sometimes opposite, petiolate or sessile, simple, entire, sometimes reduced to scales, exstipulate
Leaves
Leaves often alternate, sometimes opposite, petiolate or sessile, simple, entire, sometimes reduced to scales, exstipulate
Flowers
Flowers in various sorts of essentially cymose inflorescences, often with a small dichasium axillary to each bract, small, often greenish, hermaphrodite or unisexual (then plants monoecious or dioecious), regular, monochlamydeous, the lobes distinct (in genera of the Flora Zambesiaca area), forming a valvate 3–5-lobed fleshy cup or tube Flowers in various sorts of essentially cymose inflorescences, often with a small dichasium axillary to each bract, small, often greenish, hermaphrodite or unisexual (then plants monoecious or dioecious), regular, monochlamydeous, the lobes distinct (in genera of the Flora Zambesiaca area), forming a valvate 3–5-lobed fleshy cup or tube
Androecium
Stamens as many as and opposite the lobes, inserted at or below their base; anthers (in genera of the Flora Zambesiaca area) with 2 parallel thecae opening by longitudinal slits
Nectaries
Disk epigynous, intrastaminal, lobed, often lining at least the lower part of the perianth tube
Gynoecium
Ovary (in genera of the Flora Zambesiaca area) inferior, unilocular, placenta erect, free-central with 2–3 pendulous ovules; style simple, cylindric or sometimes nearly wanting; stigma terminal, capitate or 2–3(5)-lobed
Fruits
Fruit indehiscent, dry or fleshy (nut or drupe) Fruit indehiscent, dry or fleshy (nut or drupe)
[FWTA]

Santalaceae, F.N. Hepper. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:2. 1958

Habit
Trees, shrubs or herbs, sometimes parasitic on trees or roots
Leaves
Leaves alternate or opposite, entire, sometimes reduced to scales, exstipulate
Flowers
Flowers often greenish, hermaphrodite or unisexual, actinomorphic
Calyx
Calyx often fleshy, adnate to the ovary, lobes 3–6, valvate or slightly imbricate
Corolla
Petals absent
Androecium
Stamens the same number as the calyx-lobes and opposite to them; anthers 2-celled, opening lengthwise
Nectaries
Disk epigynous
Gynoecium
Ovules 1–3, pendulous from the top of a basal placenta Ovary inferior or half inferior, 1-celled; style simple
Fruits
Fruit nut-like or drupaceous
Seeds
Seed without a testa; endosperm copious; embryo straight; cotyledons mostly terete
[FZ]

Flora Zambesiaca. Vol. 9, Part 3. Polygonaceae-Myriaceae. Pope GV, Polhill RM, Martins ES. 2006.

Habit
Shrubby or herbaceous, brittle, aerial hemiparasites of other dicotyledons (very rarely monocotyledons, e.g bamboo and aloes, or gymnosperms), monoecious or dioecious, with often swollen, articulated nodes, glabrous to variously pubescent; haustorial attachment single, without epicortical runners Shrubby or herbaceous, brittle, aerial hemiparasites of other dicotyledons (very rarely monocotyledons, eg bamboo and aloes, or gymnosperms), monoecious or dioecious, with often swollen, articulated nodes, glabrous to variously pubescent; haustorial attachment single, without epicortical runners
Leaves
Leaves opposite, simple, entire, evergreen, curvinerved, often reduced to scales, estipulate Leaves opposite, simple, entire, evergreen, curvinerved, often reduced to scales, estipulate
Perianth
Perianth segments (tepals) mostly 2–4, triangular, valvate Perianth segments (tepals) mostly 2–4, triangular, valvate
Flowers
Pistillate flowers with a short style, or estylous, and a linear or capitate stigma Staminate flowers with stamens opposite to and mostly as many as the perianth segments, epitepalous or free (occasionally forming a central synandrium); style vestigial or absent Flowers minute, mostly c. 2–3 mm across, monochlamydeous, unisexual, solitary, clustered at the nodes, or in axillary spikes or dichasia Flowers minute, mostly c. 2–3 mm across, monochlamydeous, unisexual, solitary, clustered at the nodes, or in axillary spikes or dichasia Pistillate flowers with a short style, or estylous, and a linear or capitate stigma Staminate flowers with stamens opposite to and mostly as many as the perianth segments, epitepalous or free (occasionally forming a central synandrium); style vestigial or absent
Ovary
Ovary inferior, without locules or ovules, the several embryo sacs originating from a short placental column and forming a 1-seeded, endospermous berry, with a viscous layer formed from the fruit wall
Seeds
Seeds without testa, often polyembryonic, the embryos mostly cylindrical, with vestigial cotyledons. Seeds without testa, often polyembryonic, the embryos mostly cylindrical, with vestigial cotyledons
Note
Korthalsella japonica (Thunb.) Engl., a tiny parasite of Syzygium, with strap-like internodes all in a single plane, minute flowers in clusters without a bracteal cup and berries 1–2 mm high, extends in Africa from Ethiopia to Katanga (Shaba) Province of Dem. Rep. Congo, close to the Zambian border, but has not yet been recorded from the Flora Zambesiaca area. Formerly united with the Loranthaceae, but now generally reorganized as a distinct family, see introduction to Loranthaceae, Barlow in Proc. Linn. Soc. New South Wales 89: 268–272 (1964), Kuijt in Brittonia 20: 136–147 (1968) and Polhill & Wiens, Mistletoes Afr.: 13–16 (1998).
Distribution
A family of 7 genera and c. 450 species, widely distributed through tropical and north temperate regions. Three genera and 47 species in Africa. Formerly united with the Loranthaceae, but now generally reorganized as a distinct family, see introduction to
Male
Staminate flowers with stamens opposite to and mostly as many as the perianth segments, epitepalous or free (occasionally forming a central synandrium); style vestigial or absent
Female
Pistillate flowers with a short style, or estylous, and a linear or capitate stigma
Gynoecium
Ovary inferior, without locules or ovules, the several embryo sacs originating from a short placental column and forming a 1-seeded, endospermous berry, with a viscous layer formed from the fruit wall
[FTEA]

Viscaceae, R. M. Polhill and D. Wiens. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1999

Habit
Shrubby or herbaceous, brittle, aerial hemiparasites of other dicotyledons, rarely of monocotyledons, e.g. bamboo and aloes, or gymnosperms, monoecious or dioecious, glabrous to variously pubescent, with often swollen, articulated nodes; haustorial attachment single, without epicortical runners
Leaves
Leaves opposite, simple, entire, evergreen, curvinerved, often reduced to scales, estipulate
Flowers
Flowers minute, mostly less than 3 mm. wide, monochlamydeous, unisexual, solitary, clustered at the nodes or in axillary spikes or dichasia Pistillate flowers with true style short or lacking; stigma linear or capitate Staminate flowers with stamens opposite to, and mostly as many as, the tepals, epitepalous or free, or occasionally forming a central synandrium; style vestigial or absent
Perianth
Perianth-segments (tepals) mostly 2–4, triangular, valvate
Male
Staminate flowers with stamens opposite to, and mostly as many as, the tepals, epitepalous or free, or occasionally forming a central synandrium; style vestigial or absent
Female
Pistillate flowers with true style short or lacking; stigma linear or capitate
Gynoecium
Ovary inferior, without locules or ovules, the several embryo-sacs originating from a short placental column and forming a 1-seeded, endospermous berry, with a viscous layer developed from the fruit-wall
Seeds
Seeds without testa, often polyembryonic, the embryos mostly cylindrical, with vestigial cotyledons
Distribution
A family of 7 genera and ± 450 species, widely distributed through tropical and north temperate regions

Images

Santalaceae R.Br. appears in other Kew resources:

First published in Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holland. 350. 1810 [27 Mar 1810] (1810)

Accepted by

  • APG IV (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/boj.12385

Sources

Flora Zambesiaca
Flora Zambesiaca
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of West Tropical Africa
Flora of West Tropical Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0