1. Family: Fabaceae Lindl.
    1. Albizia Durazz.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Tropics & Subtropics.

    [FZ]

    Leguminosae, J.P.M. Brenan. Flora Zambesiaca 3:1. 1970

    Habit
    Trees, sometimes shrubs, very rarely climbing (not so in Africa); prickles or spines absent in the African spp. (except for a very small prickle beneath the node in A. harveyi and except that in A. anthelmintica some branchlets may be sharp and spinescent at the ends); sharp hooks apparently representing petiole-bases present in a very few extra-African spp. Leaves 2-pinnate; pinnae each with one to many pairs of leaflets.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences of round heads, or (not in native African spp.) spikes or spiciform racemes, pedunculate, axillary and solitary or much more often fascicled, often aggregated near the ends of branchlets which may be lateral and much shortened, sometimes paniculately arranged.
    Flowers
    Flowers hermaphrodite or occasionally male and hermaphrodite; 1-2 central flowers in each head frequently larger, different in form from the others and apparently male.
    Calyx
    Calyx gamosepalous, with normally 5 teeth or lobes (rarely 4, 6 or 7).
    Corolla
    Corolla gamopetalous, infundibuliform or campanulate, with normally 5 lobes (rarely 4 or 6, or in A. coriaria and A. tanganyicensis the lobes may be irregularly connate among themselves).
    Stamens
    Stamens numerous (19-50), fertile, their filaments united in their lower part into a slender tube sometimes projecting beyond, sometimes shorter than the corolla.
    Fruits
    Pods oblong, straight, flat, dehiscent or not, not septate inside, the valves papery to rigidly coriaceous but not thickened or fleshy.
    Seeds
    Seeds usually ± flattened.
    [FTEA]

    Leguminosae, J. B. Gillett, R. M. Polhill & B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1971

    Habit
    Trees, sometimes shrubs, very rarely climbing (not so in Africa); prickles or spines absent in the African species (except for a very small prickle beneath the node in A. harveyi and that in A. anthelmintica some branchlets may be sharp and spinescent at ends); sharp hooks apparently representing petiole-bases present in a very few extra-African species
    Leaves
    Leaves bipinnate; pinnae each with one to many pairs of leaflets
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences of round heads, or (not in native African species) spikes or spiciform racemes, pedunculate, axillary and solitary or much more often fascicled, often aggregated near ends of branchlets, which may be lateral and much shortened, sometimes paniculately arranged
    Flowers
    Flowers hermaphrodite or occasionally ♂ and hermaphrodite; 1–2 central flowers in each head frequently larger, different in form from the others and apparently ♂
    Calyx
    Calyx gamosepalous, with normally 5 teeth or lobes (rarely 4, 6 or 7)
    Corolla
    Corolla gamopetalous, infundibuliform or campanulate, with normally 5 lobes (rarely 4 or 6, or in A. coriaria and A. tanganyicensis the lobes may be irregularly connate among themselves)
    Stamens
    Stamens numerous (19–50), fertile, their filaments united in their lower part into a slender tube sometimes projecting from, sometimes shorter than the corolla
    Fruits
    Pods oblong, straight, flat, usually dehiscent, not septate inside, the valves papery to rigidly coriaceous but not thickened or fleshy
    Seeds
    Seeds usually ± flattened.
    [LOWO]

    Legumes of the World. Edited by G. Lewis, B. Schrire, B. MacKinder & M. Lock. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. (2005)

    Habit
    Trees, shrubs, and lianas
    Ecology
    Tropical, mostly lowland (sometimes inundated) or low-montane seasonally dry riparian forest, woodland, wooded grassland, bushland and thicket; some restricted to rain forest; others extratropical, rarely in desert foothills, often in secondary vegetation
    Distribution
    discontinuously circumtropical, most diverse in tropical America (22 spp.), c. 14 spp. in S America, 6 spp. in C America, Mexico and the Caribbean and 2 spp. widespread in the Neotropics; Africa (c. 36 endemic spp.), Madagascar (30 spp., 24 endemic), SE Asia (centred in Malesia [20 spp.], India, Indo-China to China [c. 15 spp., the type species of the genus, A. julibrissin Durazz. is widespread in subtropical to temperate W, C and E Asia]); 1 sp., endemic in N Australia
    Note
    Albizia has become a dumping ground for unrelated species in the Ingeae and needs to be monographed. Kajita et al. (2001), in their molecular analysis, have reasonable support linking A. julibrissin (the type species of Albizia) with Paraserianthes, thus suggesting a more basally branching position in the tribe for at least one element of Albizia (clustering with the Old World Group in Fig. 27). Luckow et al. (2003) include 8 species of Albizia sens. lat. in their molecular analysis of the Mimosoideae and the genus, as currently circumscribed, is shown to be polyphyletic; three neotropical species form a well-supported group but the Old World species appear as disparate elements scattered amongst other genera of the Ingeae. The spelling 'Albizzia', adopted by Bentham in 1844 and much copied, is incorrect. Rico Arce (1999) reduced Balizia to a synonym of Albizia

    Nielsen (1981a) recognised 21 genera in Ingeae (Table 7), although 4 were not given generic names, but were referred to as ‘Gen. A’ to ‘Gen. D’. He recognised the genus Marmaroxylon, although without a generic number, so that the tribe, to the casual observer, appeared to contain only 20 genera. The genus Punjuba appended by Nielsen (1981a) under “genera and species of unknown affinity” is here treated as a synonym of Abarema, following Barneby & Grimes (1996), although we suggest that this may be reinstated as a good genus in the future. Nielsen (1981a) also included Pithecellobium incuriale (Vell.) Benth. as a “species of unknown affinity” but this is now placed in Leucochloron Barneby & Grimes (1996).

    Polhill (1994) increased the number of genera of Ingeae to 25 (Table 7). He recognised Nielsen’s ‘Gen. A’ as Paraserianthes I.C.Nielsen, ‘Gen. B’ as Archidendropsis I.C.Nielsen, ‘Gen. C’ as Pararchidendron I.C.Nielsen, and ‘Gen. D’ as Macrosamanea Britton & Rose ex Britton & Killip. He placed Faidherbia in Ingeae for the first time, reinstated Cathormion, Samanea and Chloroleucon, and recognised the monospecific Obolinga Barneby (subsequently subsumed into Cojoba by Barneby & Grimes, 1997). Zapoteca, a segregate of Calliandra described by Hernández (1986), was also added by Polhill (1994). Klugiodendron, recognised by Nielsen (1981a), was considered a synonym of Abarema by Polhill (1994), and Affonsea was placed as a synonym of Inga, a position later confirmed by Pennington (1997).

    The present treatment of Ingeae recognises 36 genera (24 of which are New World endemics) and (935)–951–(966) species (Fig. 27). We follow Barneby & Grimes (1997) in placing Obolinga as a synonym of Cojoba. Eight genera: Blanchetiodendron, Ebenopsis, Hesperalbizia, Hydrochorea, Leucochloron, Painteria, Pseudosamanea, and Sphinga, have either been reinstated or described as new since 1994 (Barneby & Grimes, 1996). Paraserianthes section Falcataria was raised to generic status as Falcataria (I.C.Nielsen) Barneby & Grimes (1996). Balizia Barneby & Grimes (1996) is considered a synonym of Albizia following Rico Arce (1999). Guinetia L.Rico & M.Sousa was described as new (Rico Arce et al., 1999, publ. 2000), and Viguieranthus Villiers in 2002.

    Clarification of generic relationships within tribe Ingeae still suffers from a paucity of molecular data, partly due to a lack of appropriate material for DNA extraction of the recently described and reinstated genera. Luckow et al. (2000) included four ingoid genera in their analysis of the basal genera of Mimosoideae. These formed a group together with Faidherbia (then still considered a member of tribe Acacieae, although moved to Ingeae by Polhill (1994)). Barneby & Grimes (1996) concentrating on neotropical taxa, divided American ingoids into five informal alliances: the Abarema-, Samanea-, Chloroleucon-, Pithecellobium- and Inga- alliances. Genera of uncertain position within their system included Albizia, Enterolobium and Cedrelinga. Lysiloma was considered as intermediate between tribes Ingeae and Acacieae. Luckow et al. (2003) carried out a phylogenetic analysis of the Mimosoideae using chloroplast DNA sequence data. They treated sixteen of the 36 ingoid genera recognised in this account, including Faidherbia, but concluded that relationships within the Ingeae are generally unresolved and that, with only a few exceptions, clades within the ingoid part of their topology were not strongly supported. Albizia proved to be polyphyletic, supporting the findings of Grimes (1999).

    Any new classification of the Ingeae will require sampling of all the genera not included by Luckow et al. (2003) and more extensive sampling of the larger and putatively non-monophyletic genera. Relationships between ingoid genera and the various elements of a polyphyletic Acacia have still to be resolved, although Luckow et al. (2003) have an Acacia subgenus Phyllodineae clade nested within the Ingeae, suggesting that at least part of Acacia sens. lat. (the Australian phyllodinous acacias) might be included within the Ingeae in the future, or that the Ingeae, as currently circumscribed, may have to be broken up into several distinct suprageneric taxa. Such suggestions are premature as 20 ingoid genera, including Abarema, Archidendron, Pithecellobium, Zygia and the largely Madagascan Viguieranthus have not yet been included in molecular analyses.

    [LOWO]

    Legumes of the World. Edited by G. Lewis, B. Schrire, B. MacKinder & M. Lock. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. (2005)

    Habit
    Trees
    Ecology
    Mainly seasonally dry tropical woodland, from near sea level to 1500 m
    Distribution
    SW Mexico
    Note
    A member of the 'Samanea-alliance' of Barneby & Grimes (1996)
    [LOWO]
    Use
    Various species, e.g., A. lebbeck (L.) Benth. (East Indian walnut, siris tree, woman's tongue) , are used for timber (construction, furniture, cabinet work, veneers, general carpentry), livestock fodder, human food (fruit pulp and seeds), bark (fibre and pulp for paper), medicine, firewood, gums, tannins, dyes, ink, soaps, fish poisons, ornamentals, street and plantation shade trees and for reforestation

    Images

    Distribution

    Doubtfully present in:

    Maldives, Manchuria

    Native to:

    Andaman Is., Angola, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Assam, Bangladesh, Belize, Benin, Bismarck Archipelago, Bolivia, Borneo, Botswana, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Burkina, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Caprivi Strip, Caroline Is., Central African Repu, Chad, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, East Himalaya, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, French Guiana, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Hainan, Haiti, Honduras, India, Iran, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Japan, Jawa, Kenya, Korea, KwaZulu-Natal, Laos, Leeward Is., Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaya, Mali, Maluku, Mauritius, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nansei-shoto, Nepal, New Caledonia, New Guinea, Nicaragua, Nicobar Is., Niger, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Pakistan, Panamá, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Queensland, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Solomon Is., Somalia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Suriname, Swaziland, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Tibet, Togo, Transcaucasus, Trinidad-Tobago, Uganda, Uruguay, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Vietnam, West Himalaya, Western Australia, Windward Is., Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Afghanistan, Alabama, Aruba, Bahamas, California, Chagos Archipelago, Cook Is., Cyprus, Djibouti, East Aegean Is., Fiji, Fiji, Florida, Gulf of Guinea Is., Hawaii, Illinois, Iraq, Kentucky, Krym, Missouri, Netherlands Antilles, New Guinea, New Mexico, New York, North Caucasus, Oman, Pennsylvania, Puerto Rico, Rodrigues, Réunion, Saudi Arabia, Seychelles, Society Is., Tadzhikistan, Tennessee, Texas, Tonga, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Yemen

    Albizia Durazz. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Nov 1, 2005 Cheek, M. [11946], Cameroon K000338950
    Jan 1, 1995 Hinton, G.B. [7493], Mexico K000118018
    6049.166
    Maitland, T.D. [588], Cameroon K000093010
    Maitland, T.D. [588], Cameroon K000093011
    Prance, G.T. [20476], Amazonas K000876038
    Rakotonandrasana, S. [1141], Madagascar K000966237

    First published in Mag. Tosc. 3(4): 11 (1772)

    Accepted by

    • de Lourdes Rico Acra, M., Gale, S.L. & Maxted, N. (2008). A taxonomic study of Albizia (Leguminosae: Mimosoideae: Ingeae) in Mexico and Central America Anales del Jardin Botanico de Madrid 65: 255-305.
    • Govaerts, R. (1995). World Checklist of Seed Plants 1(1, 2): 1-483, 529. MIM, Deurne.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • Benth. in Trans. Linn. Soc. 30: 557 (1875).
    • —F.T.A. 2: 355
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Magazz. Tosc. 3 (4) (vol. 12): 10, 13, illustr. (1772).
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Magazz. Tosc. 3 (4) (vol. 12): 10, 13, illust. (1772)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Legumes of the World Online
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Plants and People Africa
    Common Names from Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com/
    © Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/