1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Imperata Cirillo

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Tropics & Subtropics.

    [FZ]

    Gramineae, T. A. Cope. Flora Zambesiaca 10:4. 2002

    Habit
    Inflorescence a silky spiciform panicle bearing numerous racemes, but these much abbreviated and not easily distinguished; raceme rhachis tough with slender internodes.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets alike, paired, both pedicelled, terete, enveloped in long white hairs from the callus and glumes.
    Florets
    Inferior floret represented by a hyaline lemma. Superior floret entire, awnless; lodicules 0; stamens 1–2.
    [GB]

    nonem

    Habit
    Perennial. Rhizomes absent (3), or elongated (8). Culms erect (9/10), or geniculately ascending (2/10), or decumbent (1/10); 10-87.59-200 cm long. Lateral branches lacking (6/6). Leaf-sheath auricles absent (10), or erect (2). Ligule an eciliate membrane (3), or a ciliolate membrane (6), or a ciliate membrane (2). Leaf-blades linear, or lanceolate (1); herbaceous (10), or coriaceous (1); stiff (8), or firm (3). Leaf-blade midrib conspicuous (1/2), or widened (1/2).
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle with branches tipped by a raceme; exserted (10), or embraced at base by subtending leaf (1). Panicle contracted (2), or spiciform (10). Racemes bearing few fertile spikelets. Rhachis subterete (10/10). Rhachis internodes filiform. Spikelets in pairs. Fertile spikelets pedicelled; 2 in the cluster. Pedicels filiform (10), or clavate (1); tip widened (1/5), or discoid (4/5).
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate (6), or elliptic (5), or oblong (1); subterete; 1.5-3.339-6 mm long; falling entire. Spikelet callus bearded; base truncate.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate (6), or elliptic (5), or oblong (1); subterete; 1.5-3.339-6 mm long; falling entire. Spikelet callus bearded; base truncate.
    Glume
    Glumes exceeding apex of florets; firmer than fertile lemma. Lower glume lanceolate (9), or oblong (2); membranous; without keels; 3 -veined (5/10), or 4 -veined (3/10), or 5 -veined (7/10), or 6-7 -veined (1/10). Lower glume lateral veins obscure (1), or distinct (10). Lower glume surface smooth, or asperulous (1); glabrous (1), or pilose (1), or villous (9). Lower glume apex obtuse (2/3), or acuminate (1/3). Upper glume lanceolate (9), or oblong (2); membranous; with undifferentiated margins (10), or hyaline margins (1); without keels; 3 -veined (5/10), or 5 -veined (4/10), or 6 -veined (3/10), or 7 -veined (4/10). Upper glume surface smooth, or scabrous (1); glabrous (1), or pilose (1), or villous (9). Upper glume apex obtuse (1/3), or acute (1/3), or acuminate (1/3).
    Florets
    Basal sterile florets barren; without significant palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret linear (1), or oblong (10); hyaline; 0 -veined (9/10), or 1 -veined (1/10); obtuse (8/9), or acuminate (1/9). Fertile lemma linear (1), or ovate (10); hyaline; without keel; 0 -veined (10), or 1 -veined (1). Lemma surface glabrous (10), or puberulous (1). Lemma margins eciliate (10), or ciliate (1). Lemma apex entire (7), or erose (2), or dentate (2); 3 -fid (2/2); obtuse (1/5), or acute (4/5). Palea 0.5 length of lemma; hyaline (9), or membranous (2); 0 -veined (9/9); without keels (9), or 2-keeled (2).
    Flowers
    Lodicules absent (10), or 2 (1). Anthers 1 (7/10), or 2 (3/10). Stigmas 2.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp (2/2); obovoid (1/1).
    Distribution
    Europe (1), or Africa (1), or Temperate Asia (3), or Tropical Asia (2), or Australasia (2), or Pacific (2), or North America (4), or South America (6).
    [FTEA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips And S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

    Habit
    Rhizomatous perennials with erect few-noded culms
    Leaves
    Leaves mostly basal, the blades narrow and erect; ligule scarious
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a narrow, often spiciform, panicle, its numerous primary branches bearing very short secondary racemes; raceme-rhachis not fracturing at maturity, bearing paired similar spikelets each supported on a slender pedicel
    Spikelets
    Spikelets lanceolate to oblong, ± terete, enveloped in long silky hairs from callus and glumes; callus very short, truncate; glumes equal, as long as the spikelet, lanceolate to oblong, membranous; lower floret reduced to a lemma, this lanceolate to oblong, shorter than the spikelet, hyaline; upper floret hermaphrodite; lemma lanceolate to oblong, shorter than the spikelet, hyaline, awnless; stamens 1–2; caryopsis ellipsoid.

    Images

    Distribution

    Doubtfully present in:

    Oman

    Native to:

    Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Angola, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Argentina South, Arizona, Bahamas, Baleares, Belize, Benin, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Bulgaria, Burkina, Burundi, California, Cameroon, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Caroline Is., Cayman Is., Central African Repu, Chad, Chile Central, Chile North, Chile South, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Corse, Costa Rica, Cuba, Cyprus, Dominican Republic, East Aegean Is., Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Fiji, France, Free State, French Guiana, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Greece, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Guyana, Hainan, Haiti, Honduras, Iran, Iraq, Italy, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Jawa, Kenya, Kermadec Is., Kriti, Kuwait, KwaZulu-Natal, Lebanon-Syria, Leeward Is., Lesotho, Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Libya, Madagascar, Madeira, Malawi, Malaya, Mali, Marianas, Mauritius, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nevada, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New Mexico, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Palestine, Panamá, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Portugal, Puerto Rico, Rwanda, Samoa, Sardegna, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sicilia, Sierra Leone, Sinai, Socotra, Solomon Is., Spain, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Tanzania, Texas, Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad-Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Uganda, Uruguay, Utah, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Windward Is., Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Alabama, Andaman Is., Assam, Bangladesh, Bismarck Archipelago, Borneo, Cambodia, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Christmas I., Cocos (Keeling) Is., East Himalaya, Florida, Georgia, India, Inner Mongolia, Japan, Kazakhstan, Kirgizstan, Korea, Laos, Louisiana, Maluku, Manchuria, Mississippi, Nansei-shoto, Nepal, New Zealand North, Nicobar Is., Norfolk Is., North Caucasus, Ogasawara-shoto, Oregon, Pakistan, South Carolina, South China Sea, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Tadzhikistan, Taiwan, Tibet, Transcaucasus, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Virginia, Wallis-Futuna Is., West Himalaya, Xinjiang

    Imperata Cirillo appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Longhi-Wagner, H.M. [6015], Brazil K001106141
    Longhi-Wagner, H.M. [6015], Brazil K001106142

    First published in Pl. Rar. Neapol. 2: XXVI (1792)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R.H.A. (2011). World checklist of selected plant families published update Facilitated by the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • F.T.A. 9: 87 (1917).
    • Pl. Rar. Neap. 2: 26 (1792)
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Pl. Rar. Neapol. 2: 26 (1792).
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Pl. Rar. Neap. 2: 26 (1792)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0