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This species is accepted, and its native range is Temp. & Subtropical Old World to Tropical Mountains.
Samolus valerandi

[FWTA]

Primulaceae, P. Taylor. Flora of West Tropical Africa 2. 1963

Morphology General Habit
A glabrous herb 1-3 ft. high
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Small white flowers
Ecology
In damp places.

[FZ]

Primulaceae, F. K. Kupicha. Flora Zambesiaca 7:1. 1983

Morphology General Habit
Glabrous annual herb up to 50 cm. tall.
Morphology Stem
Stems erect, simple or branched, leafy, arising from a basal rosette.
Morphology Leaves
Lowest stem leaves 5 cm. long or less, spathulate to suborbicular with a– short petiole; upper leaves decreasing in size, becoming bractiform, elliptic, sessile. Basal leaves up to 10 x 3 cm., fleshy, spathulate, tapering at the base into a petiole.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Racemes many–flowered; pedicels with bract c. 1 mm. long inserted at or above the middle.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx cup–shaped, with tube c. 1–5 mm. long and triangular lobes c. 1/ as long as tube.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla c. 2 mm. long, white, subcampanulate, with broadly spathulate lobes.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium
Stamens 5, c. 1 mm. long, inserted at the base of the corolla–tube; staminodes 5, subulate, inserted in the corolla–tube between the lobes.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Style
Style c. 0–5 mm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsule c. 3 mm. long, globose; valves strongly reflexed after dehiscence.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds 0·3–0·6 mm. long, ± tetrahedral, minutely granular, dark brown.

[FTEA]

Primulaceae, P. Taylor. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1958

Morphology General Habit
Glabrous annual herb with erect stems to 50 cm. high, simple or branched above.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves in a more or less well-developed basal rosette and more or less numerous throughout the length of the stem, the lowermost spathulate and up to 12 cm. long, those above obovate or elliptic, shorter.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers in terminal racemes up to 20 cm. long; pedicels ascending, up to 25 mm. long, more or less geniculate at the insertion of the bract at or slightly above the middle.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx about 2 mm. long; lobes about half that length, ovate-deltoid, acute.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla about 2 mm. long; lobes about 2/3 of that length, obovate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens inserted at the base of the corolla-tube, about 1 mm. long; staminodes minute, about 0.2 mm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsule-valves strongly reflexed after dehiscence.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds about 0.6 mm. long.
Figures
Fig. 5.
Habitat
River-banks and drying up river-beds; 1710 m.
Distribution
K4 K6 scattered throughout the whole of Africa and most of the rest of the world.

[FIQ]

Ghazanfar, S. A. & Edmondson, J. R (Eds). (2014) Flora of Iraq, Volume 5 Part 2: Lythraceae to Campanulaceae.

Morphology General Habit
Glabrous erect annual up to 50 cm high
Morphology Leaves
Leaves in a basal rosette and usually also numerous throughout the length of stem, the lowermost spatulate, those above obovate and smaller, 4–12 × 1–2 cm, base tapering, obtuse, entire
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers in terminal racemes up to 20 cm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Pedicel
Pedicels up to 25 mm
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts
Bract 2–3 mm, inserted at or above the middle of pedicel
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx ± 2 mm, lobes ovate-deltoid, acute
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla ± 2 mm, lobes obovate
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens inserted at base of corolla tube, about 1 mm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Staminodes
Staminodes minute
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsule valves strongly deflexed after dehiscence
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds ovoid, ± 0.6 mm long.
Ecology
Moist locations, near streams and in water, in ditches; alt. 10–100 m
Phenology
Feb.-Aug.
Distribution
Occasional in wetlands of lowland Iraq. Mediterranean region, Balkans, Turkey, Syria, Lebanon, Palestine, Arabian Peninsula, Iran, Pakistan to China.

[FSOM]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Morphology General Habit
Glabrous annual herb
Morphology Stem
Stems erect, up to 50 cm tall, simple or branched, leafy and with a basal rosette
Morphology Leaves
Basal leaves 3–10 x 1–2.2 cm, spathulate; lower stem leaves spathulate or oblong, up to 5 cm long, the upper ones smaller elliptic, sessile
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Racemes many-flowered, up to 15 cm long; pedicels up to 2.5 cm long, ± geniculate; bracts c. 1 mm long, inserted at or above middle of pedicel
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx cup-shaped, 1.5–2 mm long; lobes triangular
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla c. 2 mm long, white; lobes spathulate
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens c. 1 mm long, adnate to base of corolla-tube; staminodes 5, minute, inserted between corolla-lobes
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsule 2–3 mm long, globose; valves becoming strongly reflexed
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds up to 0.6 mm long.
Distribution
N1, 2 and scattered throughout most parts of the world.
Ecology
Altitude range 700–1525 m.

Native to:

Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Angola, Austria, Baleares, Baltic States, Belgium, Botswana, Bulgaria, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Chad, China South-Central, China Southeast, Corse, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, East Aegean Is., Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Finland, France, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Hungary, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Italy, Kenya, Kirgizstan, Kriti, Krym, KwaZulu-Natal, Lebanon-Syria, Libya, Madeira, Mauritania, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Netherlands, Nigeria, North Caucasus, Northern Provinces, Oman, Pakistan, Palestine, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Sardegna, Saudi Arabia, Sicilia, Sinai, Somalia, Spain, Sudan, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Tadzhikistan, Transcaucasus, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, West Himalaya, Western Sahara, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Samolus valerandi L. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Nov 7, 2011 Day, C.D. [881], Turkey K000341483
Sep 17, 1981 Palmer, E. [457], Mexico K001259237
Royle, J.F. [Cat. no. 1508], India K001113279

First published in Sp. Pl.: 443 (1753)

Accepted by

  • Authier, P. & Covillot, J. (2011). Catalogue actualisé des plantes de l'île de Rhodes (Grèce) Saussurea; Travaux de la Société Botanique de Genève 41: 131-170.
  • Barry, J. P. & Celles, J.S. (1991). Flore de Mauritanie 1: 1-359. Centre Regional de Documentation Pedagogique, Nice.
  • Boulos, L. (2000). Flora of Egypt 2: 1-352. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
  • Boutique, R. (1971). Flore du Congo du Rwanda et du Burundi, Primulaceae: 1-15. Jardin Botanique National de Belgique, Bruxelles.
  • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Chukavina, A.P. (ed.) (1984). Flora Tadzhikskoi SSR 7: 1-562. Izd-vo Akademii nauk SSSR, Moskva.
  • Collenette, S. (1999). Wildflowers of Saudi Arabia: 1-799. National commission for wildlife conservation and development (NCWCD), Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
  • Danin, A. & Fragman- Sapir, O. (2019). Flora of Israel Online http://flora.org.il/en/plants/.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Davis, P.H. (ed.) (1978). Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 6: 1-825. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
  • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2013). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 5: 1-451. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Dobignard, A., Jacquemoud, F. & Jordan, D. (1992). Matériaux pour la conaissance floristique du Sahara occidental et l'Anti-Atlas méridional. II. Leguminosae à Compositae Candollea 47: 397-481.
  • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Fischer, M.A. & Niklfeld, H. (eds.) (2011). Floristische Neufunde (99-123) Neilreichia 6: 365-396.
  • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Ghazanfar, S.A. & Edmondson, J.R. (eds.) (2013). Flora of Iraq 5(2): 1-349. Ministry of Agriculture & Agrarian Reform, Baghdad.
  • Ghazanfar, S.A. (1992). An Annotated Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Oman and their Vernacular names Scripta Botanica Belgica 2: 1-153.
  • Hansen, A. & Sunding, P. (1993). Flora of Macaronesia. Checklist of vascular plants. 4. revised edition Sommerfeltia 17: 1-295.
  • Hedberg, I., Kelbessa, E., Edwards, S., Demissew, S. & Persson, E. (eds.) (2006). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 5: 1-690. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Jones, R.L. (2005). Plant life of Kentucky. An illustrated guide to the vascular flora: 1-833. The universitry press of Kentucky.
  • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánez, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: i-viii, 1-1181. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Jørgensen, P.M., Nee, M.H. & Beck., S.G. (eds.) (2013). Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 127: 1-1741. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Launert, E. (ed.) (1983). Flora Zambesiaca 7(1): 1-394. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Lazkov, G.A. & Sultanova, B.A. (2011). Checklist of vascular plants of Kyrgyzstan Norrlinia 24: 1-166.
  • Mateos, M.A. & Valdés, B. (2009). Catálogo de la flora vascular del Rif occidental calizo (N de Marruecos). I Selaginellaceae - Rosaceae Lagascalia 29: 105-257.
  • Meikle, R.D. (1985). Flora of Cyprus 2: 833-1970. The Bentham-Moxon Trust Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Musselman, L.J. (2011). Checklist of Plants of Lebanon and Syria http://ww2.odu.edu/~lmusselm/plant/lebsyria/Checklist%20of%20Lebanon%20Plants.pdf.
  • Nasir, Y.J. (1984). Flora of Pakistan 157: 1-103. Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi.
  • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
  • Schischkin, B.K. & al. (eds.) (1954). Flora Turkmenii 6: 1-402. Turkmenskoe gosudarstvennoe izd., Ashkhabad.
  • Sennikov, A.N. (ed.) (2017). Flora of Uzbekistan 2: 1-200. Navro'z Publishers, Toshkent.
  • Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) in Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) (2012). Konspectus Flora Kavkaza 3(2): 1-623. Editio Universitatis Petropolitanae.
  • Taylor, P. (1958). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Primulaceae: 1-20.
  • Thulin, M. (ed.) (2006). Flora of Somalia 3: 1-626. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Vvedensky, A.I. (ed.) (1961). Flora Uzbekistana 5: 1-667. Izd-va Akademii nauk Uzbekskoi SSR, Tashkent.
  • Werier, D. (2017). Catalogue of the Vascular plants of New York state Memoirs of the Torrey Botanical Club 27: 1-542.
  • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (1996). Flora of China 15: 1-387. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).

Literature

Flora of West Tropical Africa

  • F.T.A. 3: 490
  • Pax & Knuth in Engl. Pflanzenr. 4, 237, Primulac.: 337 (1905)
  • Sp. Pl. 1: 171 (1753)

Flora of Iraq

  • Boiss., Fl. Orient. 4: 4 (1879);
  • Boulos, Fl. Egypt 2: 190 (2000).
  • Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 171 (1753);
  • Nabělek in Publ. Fac. Sci. Univ. Masaryk 70: 9 (1926);
  • Post, Fl. Syria, Pal. & Sinai ed. 2, 2: 177 (1933);
  • Wendelbo in Fl. Iranica 9: 35 (1965);
  • Y. Nasir in Fl. Pak. 157: 97 (1984);

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Authier, P. & Covillot, J. (2011). Catalogue actualisé des plantes de l'île de Rhodes (Grèce) Saussurea; Travaux de la Société Botanique de Genève 41: 131-170.
  • Barry, J. P. & Celles, J.S. (1991). Flore de Mauritanie 1: 1-359. Centre Regional de Documentation Pedagogique, Nice.
  • Boulos, L. (2000). Flora of Egypt 2: 1-352. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
  • Boutique, R. (1971). Flore du Congo du Rwanda et du Burundi, Primulaceae: 1-15. Jardin Botanique National de Belgique, Bruxelles.
  • Chukavina, A.P. (ed.) (1984). Flora Tadzhikskoi SSR 7: 1-562. Izd-vo Akademii nauk SSSR, Moskva.
  • Collenette, S. (1999). Wildflowers of Saudi Arabia: 1-799. National commission for wildlife conservation and development (NCWCD), Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
  • Danin, A. & Fragman- Sapir, O. (2019). Flora of Israel Online http://flora.org.il/en/plants/.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Davis, P.H. (ed.) (1978). Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 6: 1-825. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
  • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2013). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 5: 1-451. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Dobignard, A., Jacquemoud, F. & Jordan, D. (1992). Matériaux pour la conaissance floristique du Sahara occidental et l'Anti-Atlas méridional. II. Leguminosae à Compositae Candollea 47: 397-481.
  • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Ghazanfar, S.A. & Edmondson, J.R. (eds.) (2013). Flora of Iraq 5(2): 1-349. Ministry of Agriculture & Agrarian Reform, Baghdad.
  • Ghazanfar, S.A. (1992). An Annotated Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Oman and their Vernacular names Scripta Botanica Belgica 2: 1-153.
  • Hansen, A. & Sunding, P. (1993). Flora of Macaronesia. Checklist of vascular plants. 4. revised edition Sommerfeltia 17: 1-295.
  • Hepper, F.N. (ed.) (1963). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 2: 1-544.
  • Launert, E. (ed.) (1983). Flora Zambesiaca 7(1): 1-394. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Lazkov, G.A. & Sultanova, B.A. (2011). Checklist of vascular plants of Kyrgyzstan Norrlinia 24: 1-166.
  • Mateos, M.A. & Valdés, B. (2009). Catálogo de la flora vascular del Rif occidental calizo (N de Marruecos). I Selaginellaceae - Rosaceae Lagascalia 29: 105-257.
  • Meikle, R.D. (1985). Flora of Cyprus 2: 833-1970. The Bentham-Moxon Trust Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Musselman, L.J. (2011). Checklist of Plants of Lebanon and Syria http://ww2.odu.edu/~lmusselm/plant/lebsyria/Checklist%20of%20Lebanon%20Plants.pdf.
  • Nasir, Y.J. (1984). Flora of Pakistan 157: 1-103. Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi.
  • Quézel, P. (1958). Mission Botanique au Tibesti: 1-357. Université d'Alger.
  • Schischkin, B.K. & al. (eds.) (1954). Flora Turkmenii 6: 1-402. Turkmenskoe gosudarstvennoe izd., Ashkhabad.
  • Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) in Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) (2012). Konspectus Flora Kavkaza 3(2): 1-623. Editio Universitatis Petropolitanae.
  • Taylor, P. (1958). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Primulaceae: 1-20.
  • Thulin, M. (ed.) (2006). Flora of Somalia 3: 1-626. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1972). Flora Europaea 3: 1-370. Cambridge University Press.
  • Vvedensky, A.I. (ed.) (1961). Flora Uzbekistana 5: 1-667. Izd-va Akademii nauk Uzbekskoi SSR, Tashkent.
  • Wendelbo, P. (1965). Flora Iranica 9: 1-37. Naturhistorisches Museums Wien.
  • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (1996). Flora of China 15: 1-387. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).

Flora of Somalia

  • Flora Somalia, Vol 3, (2006) Author: by P. Cuccuini [updated by M. Thulin 2008]

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • L., Sp. Pl. : 171 (1753).
  • Oliv. in Flora of Tropical Africa 3 : 490 (1877).
  • Pax & Knuth in A. Engler, Das Pflanzenreich IV. 237 : 336 (1905).

Flora Zambesiaca
Flora Zambesiaca
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Iraq
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Somalia
Flora of Somalia
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of West Tropical Africa
Flora of West Tropical Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Science Photographs
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Neotropikey
Milliken, W., Klitgard, B. and Baracat, A. (2009 onwards), Neotropikey - Interactive key and information resources for flowering plants of the Neotropics.
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0