1. Family: Cucurbitaceae Juss.
    1. Cucumis L.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & Subtropical Old World.

    [FZ]

    Cucurbitaceae, C. Jeffrey. Flora Zambesiaca 4. 1978

    Habit
    Annual or perennial herbs, the latter with thickened or tuberous rootstock; stems annual, prostrate or scandent.
    Leaves
    Leaves simple, petiolate.
    Tendrils
    Tendrils simple, rarely more than one at each node.
    Corolla
    Corolla-lobes 5, united near the base.
    Stamens
    Stamens 3, two double 2-thecous, one single 1-thecous; filaments short, inserted on receptacle-tube, free; anthers free; connective more or less produced; thecae triplicate.
    Disc
    Disk basal, subglobose, free from receptacle-tube.
    Flowers
    Female flowers usually solitary, pedicellate; ovary smooth and densely pubescent or setulose, or covered with soft apically setulose spines or tubercules; ovules numerous, horizontal; perianth as in male flower; staminodes often present, 3, subulate, inserted on receptacle-tube; disk annular, surrounding base of style, free from receptacle-tube; stigma 3-lobed. Flowers small to medium or rarely rather large, yellow or pale yellow, monoecious or dioecious, male flowers solitary or in few-flowered axillary fascicles; receptacle-tube campanulate or obconic, ± setulose, lobes usually linear, small.
    Fruits
    Fruit usually ellipsoid, oblong-ellipsoid or subglobose, smooth and pubescent to glabrous or usually with dense to scattered apically setiferous spines, tubercules or pustules, firm-walled, fleshy, indehiscent, rarely geocarpic, usually yellowish when ripe, sometimes reddish, often longitudinally striped.
    Seeds
    Seeds ovate or elliptic in outline, usually smooth, compressed.
    [FTEA]

    Cucurbitaceae, C. Jeffrey. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1967

    Habit
    Medium-sized climbing or trailing herbs; stem annual, usually ± hispid- or scabrid-hairy
    Leaves
    Leaves simple, palmately lobed, petiolate
    Tendrils
    Tendrils simple
    Flowers
    Flowers small to medium-sized, yellow, monoecious, rarely dioecious Female flowers usually solitary; ovary hairy, the hairs often apical on small soft papillae or aculei; ovules many, horizontal; perianth as in ♂ flower; staminodes often present, 3, subulate, inserted on the tube; disk annular, surrounding base of style, free from tube; stigma 3-lobed Male flowers solitary or in few-flowered sessile or pedunculate groups; receptacle-tube campanulate; lobes small, filiform: petals united below; stamens 3, 2 double 2-thecous, 1 single 1-thecous, shortly inserted about the middle of the tube; filaments and anthers free; connective apically produced; thecae triplicate; disk obconic or subglobose, basal, free from the tube
    Male
    Male flowers solitary or in few-flowered sessile or pedunculate groups; receptacle-tube campanulate; lobes small, filiform: petals united below; stamens 3, 2 double 2-thecous, 1 single 1-thecous, shortly inserted about the middle of the tube; filaments and anthers free; connective apically produced; thecae triplicate; disk obconic or subglobose, basal, free from the tube
    Female
    Female flowers usually solitary; ovary hairy, the hairs often apical on small soft papillae or aculei; ovules many, horizontal; perianth as in ♂ flower; staminodes often present, 3, subulate, inserted on the tube; disk annular, surrounding base of style, free from tube; stigma 3-lobed
    Fruits
    Fruit fleshy, usually rather firm-walled, indehiscent, smooth and glabrous or ± uniformly pubescent or more often with dense to scattered fleshy spines, pustules or tubercles each of which ends in a ± broad-based hyaline bristle or the basal remnants thereof, red, yellow, greenish or sometimes brownish, rarely maturing underground
    Seeds
    Seeds small to medium-sized, lenticular, light-coloured, elliptic in outline and usually rather more pointed at the proximal end
    Figures
    Figs. 15, 16, (p. 101).
    [FTEA]

    Cucurbitaceae, C. Jeffrey. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1967

    Habit
    Prostrate herbs
    Leaves
    Leaves deeply palmately dissected
    Tendrils
    Tendrils absent
    Flowers
    Flowers very small, yellow, monoecious Male flowers solitary or few-fasciculate, shortly pedicellate; receptacle-tube shallowly saucer-shaped; lobes small, dentiform; petals 5, ± rounded; stamens 3, 2 double 2-thecous, 1 single 1-thecous; filaments short, inserted near base of receptacle-tube, free; anthers lightly coherent in centre of flower; connective narrow; thecae arcuate, apically incurved; disk absent Female flowers solitary or paired, subsessile, sometimes coaxillary with ♂; ovary hairy, subglobose; ovules horizontal; perianth as in ♂ flower; staminodes 3, subulate, inserted near base of tube; disk absent; stigma 3-lobed
    Male
    Male flowers solitary or few-fasciculate, shortly pedicellate; receptacle-tube shallowly saucer-shaped; lobes small, dentiform; petals 5, ± rounded; stamens 3, 2 double 2-thecous, 1 single 1-thecous; filaments short, inserted near base of receptacle-tube, free; anthers lightly coherent in centre of flower; connective narrow; thecae arcuate, apically incurved; disk absent
    Female
    Female flowers solitary or paired, subsessile, sometimes coaxillary with ♂; ovary hairy, subglobose; ovules horizontal; perianth as in ♂ flower; staminodes 3, subulate, inserted near base of tube; disk absent; stigma 3-lobed
    Fruits
    Fruit small, baccate
    Seeds
    Seeds small, ovoid, smooth, obscurely margined
    Figures
    Fig. 22, p. 130.
    [FTEA]

    Cucurbitaceae, C. Jeffrey. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1967

    Habit
    Rather small climbers or trailers; stems herbaceous, annual or perennial, when perennial becoming ± woody when old
    Leaves
    Leaves simple, ± palmately lobed, rarely unlobed, petiolate
    Tendrils
    Tendrils simple
    Flowers
    Flowers small, yellow, monoecious or sometimes dioecious Female flowers solitary, pedicellate; ovary smooth, hairy; ovules many, horizontal; perianth as in ♂ flower; staminodes when present 3, subulate, inserted on receptacle-tube; disk annular, surrounding base of style, free from tube; stigma 3-lobed Male flowers solitary or more often in small fascicles, pedicellate; receptacle-tube campanulate; lobes small, subulate or filiform; petals united below; stamens 3, 2 double 2-thecous, 1 single 1-thecous, shortly inserted on the tube; anthers and filaments free; connective shortly produced apically; thecae straight, subparallel, sometimes apically hooked; disk elevated, convex, free from tube
    Male
    Male flowers solitary or more often in small fascicles, pedicellate; receptacle-tube campanulate; lobes small, subulate or filiform; petals united below; stamens 3, 2 double 2-thecous, 1 single 1-thecous, shortly inserted on the tube; anthers and filaments free; connective shortly produced apically; thecae straight, subparallel, sometimes apically hooked; disk elevated, convex, free from tube
    Female
    Female flowers solitary, pedicellate; ovary smooth, hairy; ovules many, horizontal; perianth as in ♂ flower; staminodes when present 3, subulate, inserted on receptacle-tube; disk annular, surrounding base of style, free from tube; stigma 3-lobed
    Fruits
    Fruit rather small, fleshy, thin- or sometimes rather firm-walled, smooth but always hairy and sometimes scabrid, ellipsoid, and sometimes beaked, or fusiform, indehiscent
    Seeds
    Seeds small, ovate or elliptic in outline, lenticular, compressed, not or only obscurely bordered
    Figures
    Fig. 18, p. 112.
    [FZ]

    Cucurbitaceae, C. Jeffrey. Flora Zambesiaca 4. 1978

    Habit
    Rather small scandent or prostrate perennial herbs.
    Stem
    Stems herbaceous, annual or perennial, becoming somewhat woody when old.
    Leaves
    Leaves simple, petiolate.
    Tendrils
    Tendrils simple.
    Receptacle
    Receptacle-tube campanulate, lobes small, subulate or filiform.
    Corolla
    Corolla-lobes 5, united below.
    Stamens
    Stamens 3, 2 double two-thecous, 1 single one-thecous, shortly inserted on the receptacle-tube; anthers and filaments free; connective shortly produced; thecae straight, sub-parallel, sometimes apically incurved.
    Disc
    Disk elevated, convex, free from the receptacle-tube.
    Flowers
    Female flowers solitary, pedicellate; ovary shortly hirsute or hispid; ovules many, horizontal; perianth as in male flower; disk annular, surrounding base of style, free from the receptacle-tube; stigma 3-lobed. Male flowers solitary or in small fascicles, pedicellate. Flowers small, yellow, monoecious or dioecious.
    Fruits
    Fruit rather small, fleshy, thin-walled or firm-walled, smooth but always ± hirsute or scabrid, ellipsoid or fusiform, sometimes rostrate, indehiscent.
    Seeds
    Seeds small, ovate or elliptic in outline, compressed, whitish, not or obscurely bordered.
    [FTEA]

    Cucurbitaceae, C. Jeffrey. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1967

    Habit
    Medium-sized climbers; stems herbaceous, hispid, becoming when old somewhat thickened, woody and ± rough-barked at the base
    Leaves
    Leaves simple, ovate-cordate, triangular or hastate, palmately lobed, petiolate
    Tendrils
    Tendrils simple
    Flowers
    Flowers very small, yellow, monoecious Male flowers in sessile clusters, subsessile or shortly pedicellate; receptacle-tube campanulate, hispid-hairy outside; lobes small, subulate or triangular-dentiform; petals united below; stamens 3, 2 double 2-thecous, 1 single 1-thecous, inserted on the tube; anthers and filaments free; connective shortly produced apically into a rather slender appendage; thecae straight or slightly arcuate; disk elevated, free from the receptacle-tube Female flowers in sessile clusters, sometimes solitary, subsessile, sometimes coaxillary with ♂; ovary ellipsoid or globose, smooth, ± hispid-hairy; ovules several, horizontal; perianth as in ♂ flower; staminodes when present 3, subulate, inserted on receptacle-tube; disk annular, surrounding base of style, free from tube; stigma 3-lobed
    Male
    Male flowers in sessile clusters, subsessile or shortly pedicellate; receptacle-tube campanulate, hispid-hairy outside; lobes small, subulate or triangular-dentiform; petals united below; stamens 3, 2 double 2-thecous, 1 single 1-thecous, inserted on the tube; anthers and filaments free; connective shortly produced apically into a rather slender appendage; thecae straight or slightly arcuate; disk elevated, free from the receptacle-tube
    Female
    Female flowers in sessile clusters, sometimes solitary, subsessile, sometimes coaxillary with ♂; ovary ellipsoid or globose, smooth, ± hispid-hairy; ovules several, horizontal; perianth as in ♂ flower; staminodes when present 3, subulate, inserted on receptacle-tube; disk annular, surrounding base of style, free from tube; stigma 3-lobed
    Fruits
    Fruits subsessile in axillary clusters or sometimes solitary, small, baccate, ellipsoid or globose, ± hispid-hairy when young, red and practically glabrous when ripe, smooth
    Seeds
    Seeds small, elliptic in outline, rather tumid, with prominent thick raised margins and flat or slightly convex smooth or scrobiculate disk
    Figures
    Fig. 19, p. 116.
    [FZ]

    Cucurbitaceae, C. Jeffrey. Flora Zambesiaca 4. 1978

    Habit
    Scandent herbs.
    Leaves
    Leaves simple, petiolate.
    Tendrils
    Tendrils simple.
    Flowers
    Flowers very small, monoecious. Female flowers in sessile fascicles, rarely solitary, subsessile or shortly pedicellate; ovary ellipsoid or globose, smooth, ± setose; ovules numerous, horizontal; perianth as in male flower; staminodes 3, subulate, inserted on the receptacle-tube; disk annular, surrounding base of style; stigma 3-lobed. Male flowers in sessile fascicles, shortly pedicellate. Receptacle-tube obconic-campanulate, lobes small, narrow, dentiform or subulate. Corolla-lobes 5, united below. Stamens 3, two double 2-thecous, one single 1-thecous; filaments short, inserted on the receptacle-tube, free; connective shortly produced; thecae straight.
    Disc
    Disk basal, subglobose, free from the receptacle-tube.
    Fruits
    Fruits subsessile in axillary fascicles, sometimes solitary, small, baccate, ellipsoid or globose, smooth, red and usually glabrous when mature.
    Seeds
    Seeds elliptic in outline, rather tumid, with prominent margins and flat or convex disk, usually ± verrucose or scrobiculate.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Afghanistan, Algeria, Andaman Is., Angola, Assam, Bangladesh, Benin, Botswana, Burkina, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Central African Repu, Chad, China South-Central, Congo, Djibouti, East Himalaya, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Free State, Gabon, Gambia, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Gulf States, India, Iran, Iraq, Ivory Coast, Jawa, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Laos, Lebanon-Syria, Lesotho, Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Maluku, Mauritania, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nepal, New Guinea, New South Wales, Nicobar Is., Niger, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Oman, Pakistan, Palestine, Queensland, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Sinai, Socotra, Somalia, South Australia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Swaziland, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Uganda, Vietnam, West Himalaya, Western Australia, Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Alabama, Albania, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Arizona, Arkansas, Aruba, Austria, Bahamas, Belize, Bismarck Archipelago, Bolivia, Borneo, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, California, Canary Is., Cape Verde, Cayman Is., China North-Central, China Southeast, Colombia, Connecticut, Cook Is., Costa Rica, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Fiji, Florida, Galápagos, Georgia, Ghana, Gilbert Is., Guatemala, Haiti, Illinois, Jamaica, Japan, Kansas, Kazakhstan, Kentucky, Kirgizstan, Korea, Leeward Is., Libya, Louisiana, Madeira, Malaya, Maldives, Manchuria, Marianas, Masachusettes, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Michigan, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Morocco, Netherlands Antilles, Nevada, New Caledonia, New Hampshire, New Mexico, New York, Nicaragua, Niue, Norfolk Is., North Carolina, Ohio, Oklahoma, Ontario, Panamá, Paraguay, Pennsylvania, Peru, Philippines, Portugal, Puerto Rico, Rhode I., Réunion, Samoa, Seychelles, Society Is., Solomon Is., South Carolina, South European Russi, Spain, Taiwan, Texas, Trinidad-Tobago, Tunisia, Utah, Uzbekistan, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Virginia, West Virginia, Windward Is.

    Cucumis L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Gillett, J.B. [22986], Somalia K000731946
    Melville, R., United Kingdom 8094.000
    Thulin, M. [10624], Somalia K000809229
    Luke, Q. [TPR589], Kenya K000809252
    Godding, H.C. [69], Somalia K000731943

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 1011 (1753)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • —F.T.A. 2: 542.
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Deakin, Bohn & Whitaker in Econ. Bot. 25, 2: 195–211 (1971).
    • Gen. Pl. ed. 5: 442 (1754).
    • Sp. Pl. 2: 1011 (1753)
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • L., Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 442 (1754)
    • Sp. Pl.: 1011 (1753)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0