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  1. Family: Haloragaceae R.Br.
    1. Myriophyllum Ponted. ex L.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Cosmopolitan.


    Haloragaceae, R. Boutique (Jardin botanique national de Belgique) and B. Verdcourt (Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew). Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1973

    Perennial, rarely annual, aquatic herbs, either free-floating or with rhizomes rooted in the bottom; foliage submerged, apart from the inflorescences (except in unusual terrestrial forms)
    Leaves in whorls of 3–6, or aerial ones whorled, opposite or alternate, without stipules or with 1(–3) filiform to subulate deciduous stipule-like outgrowths; submerged ones pinnately divided into unbranched capillary segments; aerial ones sometimes simple, toothed or entire
    Flowers in leafy or bracteate terminal spikes or only in the lower axils, ± sessile, polygamous or monoecious, rarely dioecious, the upper flowers commonly ♂, the lower ♀; bracteoles 2, often very inconspicuous
    Calyx inconspicuous, of 4 small lobes in the ♂ flowers, minute in the ♀ flowers
    Corolla of 2–4 boat-shaped deciduous petals in the ♂ flowers, minute or absent in the ♀ flowers.
    Stamens usually 8 or sometimes 1, 2, 4 or 6, absent in ♀ flowers
    Ovary 2–4-locular, 4-ovuled, ± 4-sulcate, reduced or absent in ♂ flowers; style very short or absent; stigmas 2 or 4, subsessile, oblong, recurved, persistent
    Fruit separating into 1-seeded nutlets, usually 4 or sometimes fewer by abortion; pericarp often ± tuberculate
    Seeds pendulous, oblong-cylindric, with a membranous testa and copious endosperm.

    Haloragaceae, E. J. Mendes. Flora Zambesiaca 4. 1978

    Glabrous, mostly perennial, usually aquatic herbs, sometimes growing on mud.
    Stems free-floating or with rooted rhizomes, mostly branched.
    Submerged leaves in whorls of 3–6 and always pinnatisect into undivided segments; aerial leaves whorled, opposite or alternate, often dentate or entire or bract-like; stipules absent; leaf-bases often accompanied by 1–3 filiform to subulate, deciduous, stipule-like outgrowths.
    Flowers mostly sessile, 1 or 2 in the axil of a leaf or bract in terminal, emergent spikes or solitary in the lower leaf-axils, bisexual or unisexual, monoecious or sometimes polygamous (the upper flowers commonly male, the lower female, sometimes with hermaphrodite ones in between), rarely dioecious; bracteoles 2, often inconspicuous.
    Calyx of 4 small lobes in male flowers, minute in female.
    Petals in male flowers 2 or 4, cucullate, caducous, in female minute or absent.
    Stamens (2–7)8 or 1; staminodes absent in female flowers.
    Gynoecium 2–4-locular, rudimentary or absent in male flowers; styles 2 or 4, very short or absent; stigmas 2 or 4, subsessile or sessile, persistent.
    Fruit separating into 4 (or fewer by abortion) 1-seeded nutlets.
    Seeds pendulous; testa membranous; endosperm copious.



    Doubtfully present in:

    Angola, Guyana

    Native to:

    Afghanistan, Alabama, Alaska, Albania, Aleutian Is., Algeria, Altay, Amur, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Argentina South, Assam, Austria, Azores, Baleares, Baltic States, Bangladesh, Belarus, Belgium, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, British Columbia, Bulgaria, Buryatiya, Cameroon, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Central European Rus, Chatham Is., Chile Central, Chile North, Chile South, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Chita, Colombia, Colorado, Corse, Costa Rica, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, East Aegean Is., East European Russia, East Himalaya, Ecuador, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Falkland Is., Finland, France, Free State, French Guiana, Føroyar, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Guatemala, Hainan, Hungary, Iceland, Illinois, India, Inner Mongolia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Irkutsk, Italy, Japan, Jawa, Kamchatka, Kazakhstan, Kentucky, Khabarovsk, Kirgizstan, Korea, Krasnoyarsk, Kriti, Krym, Kuril Is., KwaZulu-Natal, Lebanon-Syria, Macquarie Is., Madagascar, Magadan, Malawi, Malaya, Manchuria, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Mongolia, Montana, Morocco, Myanmar, Namibia, Netherlands, New Guinea, New Mexico, New South Wales, New York, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Nicaragua, North European Russi, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Northwest European R, Norway, Nunavut, Oregon, Pakistan, Palestine, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Primorye, Qinghai, Queensland, Romania, Sakhalin, Sardegna, Saudi Arabia, Sicilia, South Australia, South European Russi, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sumatera, Sweden, Switzerland, Tadzhikistan, Taiwan, Tanzania, Tasmania, Tennessee, Thailand, Tibet, Transcaucasus, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Turkmenistan, Tuva, Ukraine, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Venezuela, Vermont, Victoria, Vietnam, Washington, West Siberia, Western Australia, Wyoming, Xinjiang, Yakutskiya, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zambia, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Dominican Republic, Jamaica, Kenya, Lesotho, Madeira, Windward Is.

    Accepted Species


    Other Data

    Myriophyllum Ponted. ex L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    De Silva, F. [Cat. no. s.n.], Pakistan K001132348


    First published in Sp. Pl.: 992 (1753)

    Accepted by

    • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1968). Flora Europaea 2: 1-469. Cambridge University Press.


    Flora Zambesiaca

    • Schindl. in Engl, Pflanzenr. IV, 225: 77 (1905).
    • Gen. Pl. ed. 5: 429 (1754)
    • Sp. Pl. 2: 992 (1753)

    Flora of Tropical East Africa

    • van der Meijden & Caspers in Fl. Males. 7: 248 (1971)
    • Schindler in E.P. IV. 225: 77 (1905)
    • L., Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 429 (1754)
    • Sp. Pl.: 992 (1753)


    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
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    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at and
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families.

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at and
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families.