1. Family: Lamiaceae Martinov
    1. Teucrium L.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Cosmopolitan.

    [LKGF]

    Harley, R.M. et al. (2004). Labiatae, in The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants (K. Kubitzki, ed. in chief) VI: 167-275. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York.

    Habit
    Shrubs, subshrubs, or perennial herbs (rarely annual or biennial), often aromatic or ill-scented
    Leaves
    Leaves opposite, sessile or petiolate, simple, margin entire, variously toothed or pinnately lobed
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence an axillary cyme or paniculiform to spiciform thyrse, cymes often reduced to single flowers located in leaf axils or in bracteate racemes or heads
    Calyx
    Calyx actinomorphic to 2-lipped, accrescent or not, 5-lobed, lobes all similar or posterior lobe different from other 4, or posterior, lateral and anterior lobes differentiated as distinct types, calyx-tube often ± gibbous
    Corolla
    Corolla highly variable in colour, usually 1-lipped with anterior lip present, rarely 2-lipped, 5-lobed, anterior lobe much larger than others, usually concave
    Stamens
    Stamens 4, didynamous, exserted, filaments arched or straight, thecae divaricate, usually confluent at dehiscence
    Pollen
    Pollen operculate, usually with supratectal verrucae (rarely suprareticulate or partially psilate)
    Ovary
    Ovary shallowly 4-lobed
    Stigma
    Stigma-lobes equal or unequal
    Disc
    Disc absent to well-developed
    Fruits
    Nutlets obovoid to oblate or subglobose, usually reticulately ridged to alveolate, pubescent or glabrous, attachment-scar lateral, 0.3-0.8x as long as nutlet
    Endosperm
    Endosperm usually present.
    Note
    2n = 10-104 (most frequently 26 or 32).  About 250 species. A number of sections have been recognized (Briquet 1895-97; Kästner 1989; Navarro and El Oualidi 1997).
    Distribution
    Subcosmopolitan but mostly extra-tropical, with centre of diversity in Mediterranean region.  Introduced to New Zealand
    [FTEA]

    Lamiaceae (Labiatae), A.J. Paton, G. Bramley, O. Ryding, R.M. Polhill, Y.B. Harvey, M. Iwarsson, F. Willis, P.B. Phillipson, K. Balkwill, C.W. Lukhoba, D.F. Otieno, & R.M. Harley. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2009

    Habit
    Perennial herbs or shrubs, often strongly aromatic
    Leaves
    Leaves sessile to petiolate
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence thyrsoid with cymes opposite and arranged in a raceme-like manner
    Calyx
    Calyx campanulate, subequally 5-lobed to 2-lipped, persistent and sometimes accrescent in fruit
    Corolla
    Corolla tube short and hairy in the throat, split dorsally to near base of tube giving a 1-lipped appearance; lip 5-lobed with the middle lobe largest
    Stamens
    Stamens 4, didynamous, ascending, arched out from the split corolla; anthers with thecae divergent, confluent to such an extent that the thecae are hard to distinguish
    Disc
    Disk indistinct to well developed
    Ovary
    Ovary shallowly 4-lobed; style subterminal, ± equalling filaments, bifid with equal or unequal lobes
    Fruits
    Nutlets obovoid to rounded, sometimes pubescent, with attachment scar covering 1/3– 2/3 of proximal side
    Seeds
    Seeds usually with endosperm.
    [FZ]

    Flora Zambesiaca. Vol 8, Pt 7. Avicenniaceae, R. Fernandes. Nesogenaceae, M.A. Diniz. Verbenaceae, R. Fernandes. Lamiaceae, R. Fernandes. 2005.

    General
    Perennial herbs with few stems arising from a woody rhizome
    Distribution
    A genus of about 300 species, largely in the temperate areas of the world, concentrated in the Mediterranean region, but also found in the New World, Australia and South Africa.
    Habit
    Perennial herbs with few stems arising from a woody rhizome.
    Leaves
    Leaves opposite, decussate. Leaves opposite, decussate
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence terminal, thyrsoid with cymes opposite and arranged in a raceme-like manner. Inflorescence terminal, thyrsoid with cymes opposite and arranged in a raceme-like manner
    Flowers
    Flowers non-resupinate. Flowers non-resupinate
    Calyx
    Calyx green, campanulate, 5-lobed, persistent and slightly accrescent in fruit; lobes lanceolate. Calyx green, campanulate, 5-lobed, persistent and slightly accrescent in fruit; lobes lanceolate
    Corolla
    Corolla white; tube short with a pubescent annulus at throat, split dorsally to near base of tube giving a 1-lipped appearance; lobes 5, all on anterior side, with the anterior lobe cucullate, elliptic, longer than the others; lateral and posterior lobes rounded. Corolla white; tube short with a pubescent annulus at throat, split dorsally to near base of tube giving a 1-lipped appearance; lobes 5, all on anterior side, with the anterior lobe cucullate, elliptic, longer than the others; lateral and posterior lobes rounded
    Stamens
    Stamens 4, attached to corolla tube, parallel, ascending, arched, exserted from split corolla, pubescent at base; anthers with thecae divergent, confluent to such an extent that the separate thecae are hard to distinguish. Stamens 4, attached to corolla tube, parallel, ascending, arched, exserted from split corolla, pubescent at base; anthers with thecae divergent, confluent to such an extent that the separate thecae are hard to distinguish
    Ovary
    Ovary hairy, 2 carpellate, each carpel divided into 2 loculi; ovules one per locule. Ovary hairy, 2 carpellate, each carpel divided into 2 loculi; ovules one per locule
    Disc
    Disk indistinct. Disk indistinct
    Style
    Style subterminal, ± equalling filaments, bifid with equal lobes. Style subterminal, ± equalling filaments, bifid with equal lobes
    Fruits
    Fruit 4-lobed eventually splitting into 4 dry reticulate mericarps each containing a seed; mericarps conspicuously scarred with a areole where previously fused, pubescent at apex. Fruit 4-lobed eventually splitting into 4 dry reticulate mericarps each containing a seed; mericarps conspicuously scarred with a areole where previously fused, pubescent at apex
    Seeds
    Seeds albuminous. Seeds albuminous.
    [LKGF]

    Harley, R.M. et al. (2004). Labiatae, in The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants (K. Kubitzki, ed. in chief) VI: 167-275. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York.

    Habit
    Perennial herb or low shrub
    Stem
    Stems sharply quadrangular
    Leaves
    Leaves opposite, sessile, linear to narrowly elliptical, entire, strongly revolute
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a tight axillary cyme of (1-) 3-5 flowers
    Calyx
    Calyx actinomorphic, not accrescent, 5-lobed, lobes subulate, apically recurved-uncinate
    Corolla
    Corolla white, zygomorphic, 5-lobed, anterior lobe largest
    Stamens
    Stamens 4, equal or didynamous, included to slightly exserted, filaments straight, thecae divaricate, confluent at dehiscence
    Pollen
    Pollen operculate, with supratectal verrucae
    Ovary
    Ovary shallowly 4-lobed
    Stigma
    Stigma-lobes equal
    Disc
    Disc poorly developed
    Fruits
    Nutlets obovoid-trigonal, reticulately ridged, pubescent, glandular, attachment-scar lateral, 0.6x as long as nutlet
    Endosperm
    Endosperm present.
    Note
    One species, Oncinocalyx betchei F. Muell.
    Distribution
    Eastern Australia (Queensland, New South Wales).
    [LKGF]

    Harley, R.M. et al. (2004). Labiatae, in The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants (K. Kubitzki, ed. in chief) VI: 167-275. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York.

    Habit
    Shrubs
    Stem
    Stems sharply quadrangular
    Leaves
    Leaves opposite, sessile or subsessile, elliptic to oblong or linear-lanceolate, entire, often caducous
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a tight axillary cyme of 1-3-flowers
    Calyx
    Calyx actinomorphic, not accrescent, 5-lobed
    Corolla
    Corolla white, zygomorphic, not clearly lipped or 1-lipped and then only anterior lip present, 5-lobed, anterior lobe largest
    Stamens
    Stamens 4, didynamous, included to slightly exserted, filaments arched, thecae divaricate, confluent at dehiscence
    Pollen
    Pollen operculate, with supratectal verrucae
    Ovary
    Ovary shallowly 4-lobed
    Stigma
    Stigma-lobes equal
    Disc
    Disc absent
    Fruits
    Fruit drupaceous, globose, orange-red, pyrenes 4, 1-seeded, reticulately ridged
    Endosperm
    Endosperm absent.
    Note
    Three species. Previously placed within "Chloanthoideae" (Prostantheroideae tribe Chloantheae), but probably closely related to Teucrium, Teucridium, and Oncinocalyx , with which it shares a distinctive pollen morphology (Abu-Asab and Cantino 1993).
    Distribution
    Australia.
    [LKGF]

    Harley, R.M. et al. (2004). Labiatae, in The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants (K. Kubitzki, ed. in chief) VI: 167-275. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York.

    Habit
    Shrub, non-aromatic
    Stem
    Stems sharply quadrangular
    Leaves
    Leaves opposite, petiolate, broadly ovate to subrotund, entire or irregularly lobed
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence of small flowers, axillary, usually solitary (occasionally in tight, few-flowered cymes)
    Calyx
    Calyx actinomorphic, not accrescent, 5-lobed
    Corolla
    Corolla white to pale blue, very small, 1-lipped with anterior lip present, 5-lobed, anterior lobe largest
    Stamens
    Stamens 4, didynamous, exserted, filaments arched, thecae divaricate, confluent at dehiscence
    Pollen
    Pollen operculate, with supratectal verrucae
    Ovary
    Ovary unlobed or very shallowly 4-lobed
    Stigma
    Stigma-lobes subequal
    Disc
    Disc absent
    Fruits
    Nutlets obovoid, rugose, pubescent, glandular, attachment-scar lateral, 0.7x as long as nutlet
    Endosperm
    Endosperm absent.
    Note
    2n = 64.  One species, Teucridium parvifolium Hook. f.
    Distribution
    New Zealand.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Afghanistan, Alabama, Albania, Algeria, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Arizona, Arkansas, Assam, Austria, Bahamas, Baleares, Baltic States, Bangladesh, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, British Columbia, Bulgaria, California, Cambodia, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Central European Rus, Chad, Chile Central, Chile North, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Colombia, Colorado, Connecticut, Corse, Costa Rica, Cuba, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, East Aegean Is., East Himalaya, Ecuador, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Florida, France, Free State, Galápagos, Georgia, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Guatemala, Gulf States, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, Illinois, India, Iowa, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jawa, Kansas, Kazakhstan, Kentucky, Kirgizstan, Korea, Kriti, Krym, Kuwait, KwaZulu-Natal, Laos, Lebanon-Syria, Lesotho, Lesser Sunda Is., Libya, Madeira, Maine, Manchuria, Manitoba, Masachusettes, Mauritania, Mexican Pacific Is., Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Morocco, Myanmar, Nansei-shoto, Nebraska, Nepal, Netherlands, New Guinea, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New South Wales, New York, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Nicaragua, North Caucasus, North Dakota, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Northwest European R, Norway, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oman, Ontario, Oregon, Pakistan, Palestine, Panamá, Paraguay, Pennsylvania, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Primorye, Queensland, Québec, Rhode I., Romania, Sardegna, Saskatchewan, Saudi Arabia, Sicilia, Sinai, Socotra, Somalia, South Australia, South Dakota, South European Russi, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sumatera, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Tadzhikistan, Taiwan, Tanzania, Tasmania, Tennessee, Texas, Thailand, Tibet, Tonga, Transcaucasus, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Turkmenistan, Turks-Caicos Is., Ukraine, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Venezuela, Vermont, Victoria, Vietnam, Virginia, Washington, West Himalaya, West Siberia, Western Australia, Western Sahara, Wyoming, Xinjiang, Yemen, Yugoslavia

    Introduced into:

    Azores, New Caledonia, Wallis-Futuna Is., West Virginia

    Teucrium L. appears in other Kew resources:

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 562 (1753)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R. (2003). World Checklist of Selected Plant Families Database in ACCESS: 1-216203. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Literature

    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Harley et al. in Kadereit (ed.), Fam. Gen. Vasc. Pl. (Kubitzki, ed. in chief) VII: 201 (2004).
    • Kadereit (ed.), Fam. Gen. Vasc. Pl. (Kubitzki, ed. in chief) VII : 201 (2004).
    • F.S.A. 28 , 4: 9 (1985).
    • in F.S.A. 28, 4: 9 (1985).
    • Bothalia 12 : 177 (1977)
    • Codd in Bothalia 12: 177 (1977)
    • Fl. Cap. 5 , 1: 384 (1910).
    • Skan in Fl. Cap. 5, 1: 384 (1910).
    • F.T.A. 5 : 500 (1900).
    • J.G. Baker in F.T.A. 5: 500 (1900).
    • Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 247 (1754).
    • Sp. Pl.: 562 (1753)
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Kubitzki, Fam. Gen. Vasc. Pl. 7: 201 (2004)
    • Edinb. J. Bot. 55: 209–220 (1998)
    • Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 247 (1754)
    • Sp. Pl.: 562 (1753)
    Lamiaceae Key Genus Fact Sheets
    • Harley RM, Atkins S, Budantsev AL, Cantino PD, Conn BJ, Grayer R, Harley MM, de Kok RPJ, Krestovskaja T, Morales R, Paton AJ, Ryding O, and Upson T. 2004. Labiatae, in The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants (K. Kubitzki, ed. in chief) VI: 167-275. Sp
    • Kinostemon Kudô, Trans. Nat. Hist. Soc. Taiwan 19: 1 (1929).
    • Botrys Fourr., Ann. Soc. Linn. Lyon, n.s., 17: 138 (1869).
    • Monochilon Dulac, Fl. Hautes-Pyrénées: 405 (1867).
    • Poliodendron Webb & Berthel., Hist. Nat. Iles Canaries 3: 106 (1845).
    • Melosmon Raf., Fl. Tellur. 3: 85 (1837).
    • Monipsis Raf., Fl. Tellur. 3: 85 (1837).
    • Scorbion Raf., Fl. Tellur. 3: 85 (1837).
    • Trixago Raf., Fl. Tellur. 3: 85 (1837).
    • Iva Fabr., Enum.: 45 (1759), nom. illeg.
    • Scorodonia Hill, Brit. Herb.: 372 (1756).
    • Gen. Pl. ed. 5: 247 (1754).
    • Chamaedrys Mill., Gard. Dict. Abr. ed. 4 (1754).
    • Polium Mill., Gard. Dict. Abr. ed. 4 (1754).
    • Scordium Mill., Gard. Dict. Abr. ed. 4 (1754).
    • Teucrium L., Sp. Pl. 2: 562 (1753)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Lamiaceae Key Genus Fact Sheets
    Nina Davies, Gemma Bramley and Don Kirkup, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0