1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Arundinaria Michx.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Central & E. U.S.A.

    [FZ]

    Gramineae, E. Launert. Flora Zambesiaca 10:1. 1971

    Spikelets
    Spikelets pedicelled, 1–several-flowered, all hermaphrodite or often the uppermost one reduced, linear in outline, cylindrical or laterally compressed, usually somewhat loose; rhachilla disarticulating between the florets, with the joints thickened towards the apex.
    Glume
    Glumes 2 (more rarely 1), slightly unequal, much shorter than the florets, persistent, few- to many-nerved, membranous.
    Lemma
    Lemmas large, membranous, chartaceous or coriaceous, dorsally rounded, 5-13-nerved, usually with transverse veinlets, with the apex acute, acuminate or mucronate.
    Palea
    Palea several-nerved, 2-keeled, only little shorter than the lemma, often ciliate along the keels, embraced by the lemma.
    Lodicules
    Lodicules 3, relatively large, ovate-lanceolate, ciliate, with nerves in the lower part.
    Stamens
    Stamens 3 (very rarely 6).
    Pistil
    Ovary sub-globular; styles 2 or rarely 3.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis narrowly oblong in outline, indurate, dorsally rounded, ventrally with a longitudinal furrow; scutellum circular.
    Habit
    Shrubby or tree-like bamboos.
    Stem
    Culms woody with many prominent nodes.
    Leaves
    Leaves usually with tessellate venation; laminae finally disarticulating from the sheaths.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence terminal and/or lateral, variable, paniculate or racemose.
    [GB]

    nonem

    Habit
    Perennial. Rhizomes absent (2), or short (6), or elongated (21); leptomorph (21/27), or pachymorph (6/27). Culms erect (17/19), or arching (1/19), or scandent (2/19); 20-244.2-800 cm long; woody; without nodal roots (1/2), or with aerial roots from the nodes (1/2). Culm-internodes similar in length (2/2); terete (27), or semiterete (1), or channelled (1). Culm-nodes swollen (3/3); without obvious supra-nodal ridge (1/1). Lateral branches lacking (3), or sparse (3), or suffrutescent (3), or dendroid (23). Branch complement one (2/19), or two (4/19), or three (11/19), or several (8/19), or many (2/19); solitary (1/7), or in a horizontal line (1/7), or in a clump (5/7); at the node (28), or subtended by a bare patch above the node (1); with subequal branches (6/7), or 1 branch dominant (1/7); as thick as stem (2/14), or thinner than stem (12/14). Culm-sheaths persistent (6/12), or tardily deciduous (1/12), or deciduous but leaving a persistent girdle (1/12), or deciduous (5/12); without auricles (18/18). Culm-sheath blade linear (5/15), or lanceolate (9/15), or narrowly ovate (1/15), or triangular (2/15); narrower than sheath (1/1). Leaf-sheath auricles absent (26), or erect (1), or falcate (2). Ligule an eciliate membrane (24), or a ciliolate membrane (14), or absent (1). Leaf-blade base without a false petiole (3), or with a brief petiole-like connection to sheath (27). Leaf-blades persistent (14), or deciduous at the ligule (15); linear (4), or lanceolate (27), or elliptic (1), or oblong (2); herbaceous (24), or chartaceous (2), or coriaceous (3); stiff (1), or firm (28). Leaf-blade venation without cross veins (16), or with obscure cross veins (3), or with distinct cross veins (11). Leaf-blade margins unthickened (1/3), or cartilaginous (2/3).
    Inflorescences
    Synflorescence simple (22/23), or compound (1/23); fasciculate (1/1). Inflorescence a panicle (8/23), or composed of racemes (4/23), or comprising only a few spikelets (11/23); terminal (22/23), or terminal and axillary (1/23); subtended by an unspecialized leaf-sheath (20/23), or a spatheole (3/23); exserted (21/23), or embraced at base by subtending leaf (2/23). Spatheole lanceolate (1/1). Panicle open (8/8). Racemes single (4/4); bearing few fertile spikelets (4/4); bearing 2 fertile spikelets on each (2/3), or 3 fertile spikelets on each (3/3), or 4 fertile spikelets on each (2/3), or 5-6 fertile spikelets on each (1/3). Spikelets solitary (23/23). Fertile spikelets pedicelled (23/23). Pedicels filiform (1/1).
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1-6-15 fertile florets; with a barren rhachilla extension (1/23), or with diminished florets at the apex (23/23). Spikelets linear (13/23), or lanceolate (3/23), or elliptic (1/23), or oblong (6/23); laterally compressed (23/23); 5-36.2-110 mm long; breaking up at maturity (23/23); disarticulating below each fertile floret (23/23). Rhachilla internodes brief up to lowest fertile floret (22/23), or elongated between glumes (1/23), or elongated below proximal fertile floret (1/23); glabrous (9/22), or sparsely hairy (1/22), or pubescent (11/22), or pilose (2/22).
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1-6-15 fertile florets; with a barren rhachilla extension (1/23), or with diminished florets at the apex (23/23). Spikelets linear (13/23), or lanceolate (3/23), or elliptic (1/23), or oblong (6/23); laterally compressed (23/23); 5-36.2-110 mm long; breaking up at maturity (23/23); disarticulating below each fertile floret (23/23). Rhachilla internodes brief up to lowest fertile floret (22/23), or elongated between glumes (1/23), or elongated below proximal fertile floret (1/23); glabrous (9/22), or sparsely hairy (1/22), or pubescent (11/22), or pilose (2/22).
    Glume
    Glumes one the lower absent or obscure (5/23), or one to two the lower present in some spikelets (1/23), or two (20/23), or several (1/23); persistent (21/23), or deciduous (2/23); shorter than spikelet (23/23). Lower glume linear (1/21), or lanceolate (11/21), or oblong (1/21), or ovate (8/21); 0.3-0.5-0.7 length of upper glume; chartaceous (20/20); without keels (17/18), or 1-keeled (1/18); 0 -veined (1/11), or 1 -veined (2/11), or 3 -veined (1/11), or 5 -veined (4/11), or 6 -veined (1/11), or 7 -veined (4/11). Lower glume lateral veins absent (3/21), or distinct (18/21). Lower glume surface glabrous (20/21), or pilose (1/21). Lower glume apex acute (13/19), or acuminate (4/19), or attenuate (2/19); muticous (19/21), or mucronate (1/21), or awned (1/21). Upper glume lanceolate (7/23), or elliptic (4/23), or oblong (1/23), or ovate (12/23); 0.2-0.3825-0.5 length of adjacent fertile lemma; chartaceous (23/23); without keels (19/20), or 1-keeled (1/20); 3 -veined (2/14), or 4 -veined (1/14), or 5 -veined (4/14), or 6 -veined (1/14), or 7 -veined (9/14), or 8-9 -veined (1/14), or 11 -veined (1/14). Upper glume lateral veins with cross-veins (2/2). Upper glume surface glabrous (22/23), or pilose (1/23). Upper glume apex acute (13/22), or acuminate (6/22), or attenuate (2/22), or setaceously attenuate (1/22); muticous (21/23), or mucronate (1/23), or awned (1/23); 1 -awned (1/1).
    Florets
    Fertile lemma lanceolate (3/23), or elliptic (3/23), or ovate (17/23); chartaceous (23/23); without keel (21/22), or keeled (1/22); 5-9-15 -veined. Lemma surface smooth (22/23), or scabrous (2/23); glabrous (19/23), or puberulous (3/23), or pubescent (1/23), or pilose (1/23). Lemma margins eciliate (20/23), or ciliolate (2/23), or ciliate (1/23). Lemma apex obtuse (1/23), or acute (4/23), or acuminate (12/23), or attenuate (2/23), or setaceously attenuate (3/23), or apiculate (1/23); muticous (19/23), or mucronate (3/23), or awned (3/23); 1 -awned (3/3). Palea 1 length of lemma; 2 -veined (2/9), or 7 -veined (2/9), or 8 -veined (3/9), or 9 -veined (2/9), or 10-14 -veined (1/9). Palea keels separated (21/23), or contiguous above a sulcus (2/23); wingless (20/23), or winged (3/23); smooth (21/23), or scabrous (2/23); eciliate (14/23), or ciliolate (4/23), or ciliate (5/23). Palea surface glabrous (19/23), or puberulous (2/23), or pubescent (1/23), or pilose (1/23). Palea apex dentate (2/2); muticous (20/23), or with excurrent keel veins (3/23). Apical sterile florets resembling fertile though underdeveloped (23/23).
    Flowers
    Lodicules 3 (23/23); glabrous (9/23), or ciliate (15/23). Anthers 3 (23/23). Stigmas 2 (5/21), or 3 (16/21). Ovary glabrous (2/2).
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp (23/23); fusiform (1/5), or ellipsoid (3/5), or oblong (1/5); apex unappendaged (21/22), or rostrate (1/22). Embryo 0.2 length of caryopsis. Hilum linear (2/2); 1 length of caryopsis.
    Distribution
    Europe (1), or Temperate Asia (20), or Tropical Asia (9), or Australasia (3), or North America (2).
    [FTEA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips And S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

    Habit
    Shrubby or tree-like bamboos with woody culms
    Leaves
    Leaf-blades finally disarticulating from the sheath
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence variable, paniculate or racemose
    Spikelets
    Spikelets 1–many-flowered, all hermaphrodite or the uppermost reduced, cylindric or ± compressed, often large, loose and linear; rhachilla disarticulating below each floret; glumes 2, persistent, membranous to herbaceous, few- to many-nerved; lemmas usually larger and exceeding the glumes, rounded on the back, herbaceous, becoming chartaceous or coriaceous, 5–13-nerved usually with transverse veinlets, obtuse, acute or acuminate; palea several-nerved, 2-keeled; lodicules 3; stamens 3; stigmas 2–3.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, Missouri, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, West Virginia

    Introduced into:

    Kansas, Pennsylvania

    Arundinaria Michx. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Dransfield, S. [SD1355], Madagascar K000795286
    Hu, S.Y. [12493], Hong Kong K000795289

    First published in Fl. Bor.-Amer. 1: 73 (1803)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R.H.A. (2011). World checklist of selected plant families published update Facilitated by the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • Fl. Bor. Am. 1: 73 (1803).
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Fl. Bor. Amer. 1: 73 (1803).
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Fl. Bor.-Amer. 1: 73 (1803)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0