1. Family: Rubiaceae Juss.
    1. Ixora L.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Tropics & Subtropics.

    [FTEA]

    Rubiaceae, B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1976

    Habit
    Shrubs or small trees
    Leaves
    Leaves opposite or rarely ternate, sessile or petiolate; blades usually drying greyish, greenish, brown or rarely black (not in Africa), chartaceous to coriaceous, entirely glabrous, less often pubescent beneath, very rarely puberulous above; domatia and bacterial nodules absent; stipules with a truncate to triangular limb, usually connate for most of the length, bearing a short or long cuspidate or aristate lobe, rarely pubescent inside
    Flowers
    Flowers usually fragrant, hermaphrodite, 4(–5)-merous, few–many, usually borne in triads on terminal sessile to long-pedunculate ± lax cymes or rarely spherical heads, occasionally terminal on very short branches so that they appear axillary (not in Africa) or rarely cauliflorous (not in Africa); inflorescence-branches frequently coloured, opposite and articulate or less often absent; pedicels present or absent; inflorescence-supporting leaves (or rudimentary leaves fide Bremekamp l.c.) often present at base of peduncle, usually smaller and frequently differing in shape from the foliage leaves, but with a fully developed stipule; bracts stipule-like; bracteoles present or rarely absent
    Calyx
    Calyx often reddish in colour, glabrous to shortly pilose or less often pubescent; tube ovoid; limb short, sometimes almost absent, usually as wide as the tube, truncate or more usually 4(–5)-toothed, shortly lobed or occasionally with well-developed lobes
    Corolla
    Corolla white, yellow, pink or red, glabrous outside or rarely pilose; tube cylindrical, usually slender, only slightly widened at the throat, naked or somewhat bearded at throat; lobes contorted in bud, spreading or reflexing, lanceolate, narrowly elliptic or ovate, much shorter than or occasionally equalling the tube in length
    Stamens
    Stamens attached at the mouth of the tube, exserted and spreading or erect in mature flowers; filaments very short; anthers attached near the base, linear, apiculate and sagittate, twisted when dehisced
    Disc
    Disc annular, fleshy
    Pistil
    Ovary small, 2-locular; placentas fleshy attached near the top of the septum; ovules solitary, immersed in the placentas; style slender, equalling or slighdy exceeding the corolla-tube, glabrous or sometimes pilose; stigma exserted, 2-lobed; lobes always completely separate when mature, usually recurved, equalling or a little shorter than the anthers
    Fruits
    Fruit a drupe, usually red (dull brown in dry specimens), spherical or 2-lobed, slightly fleshy or coriaceous, containing 1–2, 1-seeded thin-walled pyrenes; calyx-limb persistent
    Seeds
    Seeds frequently undeveloped, rusty brown in colour, 2, hemispherical with a deep circular excavation in the centre of the plane ventral face, convex dorsal face not sculptured but sometimes with minute protuberances which are occasionally shiny; endosperm entire cartilaginous; embryo dorsal, curved; cotyledons foliaceous; radicle pointing downwards.
    [FZ]

    Rubiaceae, D.M.Bridson & B.Verdcourt. Flora Zambesiaca 5:3. 2003

    Habit
    Shrubs or small trees.
    Leaves
    Leaves opposite or rarely ternate, subsessile or petiolate or rarely sessile; mostly entirely glabrous; domatia and bacterial nodules absent (a bacterium causes a leaf spot in some species); petioles articulate (i.e. a joint between stem and petiole is apparent).
    Stipules
    Stipule limb truncate to triangular, usually connate for most of the length, bearing a short or long cuspidate or aristate lobe, rarely pubescent inside.
    Flowers
    Flowers usually fragrant, hermaphrodite, 4(5)-merous, few to many in terminal sessile to long-pedunculate ± lax corymbs or rarely spherical heads; inflorescence branches frequently coloured, pedicels present or absent*; inflorescence-subtending leaves usually smaller and frequently differing in shape from the foliage leaves, but with a fully developed stipule; bracts stipule-like; bracteoles present or rarely absent.
    Calyx
    Calyx tube ovoid; limb short, truncate or more usually 4(5)-toothed, shortly lobed or occasionally with well developed lobes.
    Corolla
    Corolla white, yellow, pink or red, glabrous outside or rarely pilose; tube cylindrical, usually slender, only slightly widened at the throat, naked or somewhat bearded at throat; lobes contorted to the right in bud, spreading or reflexing, linear to ovate, much shorter than or occasionally equalling the tube in length.
    Stamens
    Stamens attached at the mouth of the tube; anthers twisted when dehisced.
    Pistil
    Ovary small, 2-locular (rarely 4-locular outside Africa); placentas fleshy, attached to the top of the septum; ovules solitary, immersed in the placentas; style slender, equalling or slightly exceeding the corolla tube, glabrous or sometimes pilose; pollen presenter exserted, 2-lobed; mature lobes always completely separate, usually recurved, equalling or a little shorter than the anthers.
    Fruits
    Drupes spherical or 2-lobed, slightly fleshy or coriaceous, containing 1 or 2 pyrenes; pyrenes thin walled, 1-seeded; calyx limb persistent.
    Seeds
    Seeds 2, hemispherical, with a deep circular excavation on plane face, convex face sometimes with minute occasionally shiny protuberances.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Andaman Is., Angola, Argentina Northeast, Assam, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Belize, Benin, Bismarck Archipelago, Bolivia, Borneo, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Burkina, Burundi, Cabinda, Cambodia, Cameroon, Caroline Is., Central African Repu, Chad, China South-Central, China Southeast, Colombia, Congo, Cook Is., Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, East Himalaya, Ecuador, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Fiji, French Guiana, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Gilbert Is., Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Guyana, Hainan, Haiti, Honduras, India, Ivory Coast, Jawa, Kenya, Laos, Leeward Is., Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaya, Mali, Maluku, Marianas, Marquesas, Marshall Is., Mauritius, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nepal, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New South Wales, Nicaragua, Nicobar Is., Nigeria, Niue, Northern Territory, Panamá, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Pitcairn Is., Puerto Rico, Queensland, Rodrigues, Rwanda, Réunion, Samoa, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Society Is., Solomon Is., Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Suriname, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Tibet, Togo, Tonga, Tubuai Is., Uganda, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Wallis-Futuna Is., West Himalaya, Windward Is., Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Mexico Southeast, Trinidad-Tobago, Western Australia

    Ixora L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 1, 2010 Kartonegoro, A.R. [ARK 284], Indonesia K000174545
    Jan 1, 2010 Emiza, S.S. [FRI 54978], Malaysia K000174553
    Coode, M. [4065], Mauritius 33633.000
    Ducke, A. [2245], Brazil K001194508
    Maguire, B. [56618], Brazil K001194506
    Richardson, I. [4048], Mauritius 40030.000
    Richardson, I. [4037], Mauritius 40870.000
    Davis, A.P. [2212], Madagascar 61293.000
    Davis, A.P. [2222], Madagascar 61318.000
    Davis, A.P. [1043], Madagascar 63901.000
    Davis, A.P. [2297], Madagascar 63999.000
    Assis, M.C. [198], Brazil K001194523
    Folli, D.A. [4012], Brazil K001194518
    Maurin, O. [117], Madagascar 76235.000
    Maurin, O. [119], Madagascar 76234.000
    Maurin, O. [119], Madagascar 76253.000
    Fróes, R.L. [20758], Brazil K001194507
    Sant'Ana, S.C. et al. [371], Sergipe K000265090
    Nunes, T.S. [226], Brazil K001194522
    Prance, G.T. [6777], Brazil K001194509
    Kollmann, L. [799], Brazil K001194514
    Kollmann, L. [1790], Brazil K001194515
    Kollmann, L. [1384], Brazil K001194516
    Cuming [1881], Philippines K000771601
    Cuming, H. [1070], Philippines K000771602
    Cuming, H. [1070], Philippines K000771603
    Zappi, D. [422], Brazil K001194512
    Assis, M.A. [58], Brazil K001194519
    Rodrigues, R.R. [s.n.], Brazil K001194520
    Luz, A.A. [188], Brazil K001194510
    Luz, A.A. [462], Brazil K001194511
    Luz, A.A. [187], Brazil K001194513
    Vervloet, R.R. [3171], Brazil K001194521
    Vimercati, J.M. [335], Brazil K001194517

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 110 (1753)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R. (2003). World Checklist of Selected Plant Families Database in ACCESS: 1-216203. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • —F.T.A. 3: 162.
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • De Block, Opera Bot. Belg. 9: 1–217 (1998).
    • Bremekamp in Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenz. sér. 3: 14 (1937).
    • J.D. Hooker in Bentham & Hooker, Gen. Pl. 2: 113 (1873).
    • Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 48 (1754).
    • Sp. Pl.: 110 (1753)
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Bremek. in Bull. Inst. Bot. Buitenz. sér 3, 14: 197–367 (1937)
    • Benth. & Hook.f., G.P. 2: 113 (1873)
    • L., Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 48 (1754)
    • Sp. Pl.: 110 (1753)

    Sources

    Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0