1. Family: Arecaceae Bercht. & J.Presl
    1. Trithrinax Mart.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Bolivia to N. Argentina and Brazil.

    [PW]
    General Description
    Moderate, solitary or sometimes clustering, armed, pleonanthic, hermaphroditic palms. Stem erect, clothed with persistent, fibrous, sometimes spiny leaf sheaths, eventually becoming bare, rough, and longitudinally striate. Leaves induplicate, palmate, marcescent; sheath tubular, drying into a fibrous, often ± woody network, the upper fibres becoming stout rigid spines; petiole adaxially shallowly channelled or rounded, abaxially rounded, the margins entire, sharp; adaxial hastula triangular or deltoid usually with a definite point, abaxial hastula similar, often smaller; blade fan-shaped to nearly circular, not or only slightly costapalmate, nearly regularly divided beyond the middle (Trithrinax biflabellata divided centrally, almost to the base) into numerous single-fold, stiff segments with shallowly to deeply bifid, apiculate to sharp tips, adaxially glabrous, abaxially lightly waxy and tomentose, midribs more prominent abaxially, other veins numerous, small, transverse veinlets not evident. Inflorescences solitary, interfoliar, rather short to moderate, robust, curved, creamy-white when young, branched to 3 orders; peduncle short; prophyll and 2(–3) peduncular bracts similar, inflated, tubular at base, expanded and split along one side, slightly keeled dorsally toward the apex, with short solid tips, glabrous or densely but irregularly tomentose; rachis longer than the peduncle; rachis bracts like peduncular bracts but becoming smaller, absent distally, each subtending a first-order branch; first-order branches adnate to the rachis and often to the tubular base of the next higher bract, stout, curved, bearing chartaceous, small, triangular bracts subtending rachillae; rachillae spirally arranged, ± equal in length, much shorter than first-order branches, bearing small elongate triangular bracts each subtending a flower. Flowers spirally arranged, solitary on short stalks, slightly asymmetrical; sepals 3, very shortly united basally, ovate; petals 3, ± twice as long as the sepals, ovate, imbricate, fleshy, acute; stamens 6, exserted, filaments distinct, twice as long as the petals, slender, tapering, anthers linear oblong, versatile, latrorse; carpels 3, distinct, ovarian part obovoid, attenuate to a tubular, short to long, erect or recurved style with apical stigma, ovule basal, hemianatropous, with aril. Pollen grains ellipsoidal, with slight to obvious asymmetry; aperture a distal sulcus; ectexine tectate, finely perforate, perforate and micro-channelled, or perforate-rugulate, aperture margin slightly finer or psilate; infratectum columellate; longest axis 25–45 µm [2/3]. Fruit 1-seeded, white, globose, stigmatic scar apical, abortive carpels basal; epicarp smooth, mesocarp fleshy, endocarp thin, papery. Seed becoming free, globose, hilum circular, basal with ascending branches, endosperm homogeneous with deeply intruded seed coat below the raphe; embryo lateral, opposite the raphe. Germination remote-tubular (Chavez 2003); eophyll simple. Cytology: 2n = 36.
    Biology
    Trithrinax schizophylla is reported from sandy marshes and along river banks. The other species occur in dry areas.
    Diagnostic
    Solitary or clustering hermaphroditic fan palms of warm temperate parts of eastern South America; the leaf sheaths end in fibre spines and the unspecialised trimerous flowers have stamens greatly exceeding the petals in length.
    Vernacular
    Caranday, for other local names see Glassman (1972).
    Distribution
    Three species in Bolivia, western tropical and southern Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay and Argentina.
    Morphology
    Leaf (Tomlinson 1961), roots (Seubert 1997), floral (de Magnano 1973, Morrow 1965).
    [PW]
    Use
    Stems are used in construction and leaves as thatch. The leaf sheaths have been used as filters. The fruit are eaten fresh or fermented and the seed can be a source of oil. Trithrinax campestris is a much sought-after ornamental (Gibbons 2001).

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Bolivia, Brazil South, Brazil West-Central, Paraguay, Uruguay

    Trithrinax Mart. appears in other Kew resources:

    First published in Hist. Nat. Palm. 2: 149 (1837)

    Accepted by

    • Cano, Á, Perret, M. & Stauffer, F.W. (2013). A revision of the genus Trithrinax (Cryosophileae, Coryphoideae, Arecaceae) Phytotaxa 136: 1-53.
    • Govaerts, R. & Dransfield, J. (2005). World Checklist of Palms: 1-223. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Literature

    Palmweb - Palms of the World Online
    • J. Dransfield & N. Uhl & C. Asmussen & W.J. Baker & M. Harley & C. Lewis, Genera Palmarum. The evolution and classification of palms. 2008

    Sources

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Palmweb - Palms of the World Online
    Palmweb 2011. Palmweb: Palms of the World Online. Published on the internet http://www.palmweb.org. Accessed on 21/04/2013
    Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0