1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Phragmites Adans.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Temp. & Subtropical to Tropical Mountains.

    [FZ]

    Gramineae, E. Launert. Flora Zambesiaca 10:1. 1971

    Spikelets
    Spikelets pedicelled, solitary, 3-11-flowered, laterally compressed, muticous, gaping at maturity; rhachilla disarticulating above the glumes and between the florets; inferior floret sterile or male, the following bisexual but the uppermost usually reduced.
    Glume
    Glumes 3-5-nerved, sometimes with cross-veins, subequal to unequal, persistent, membranous, lanceolate, obovate to oblong, dorsally rounded, apex acute, subacute or sometimes obliquely truncate.
    Lemma
    Lemmas heteromorphous, dorsally rounded, always glabrous, membranous; the inferior much longer than the inferior glume, usually persistent, 3 (sometimes 5-7-) nerved, linear-lanceolate, lanceolate-oblong or oblong, rather acute; the following (fertile), caducous, 3-1-nerved, linear lanceolate, with the apex acuminate or caudate-acuminate, thinly membranous; callus slender, straight or slightly curved, obtuse, densely bearded with long soft silky hairs.
    Palea
    Paleas much shorter than the corresponding lemmas, 2-keeled, oblong, hyaline.
    Lodicules
    Lodicules 2, glabrous.
    Stamens
    Stamens 3 (2 in the inferior floret if present).
    Pistil
    Ovary glabrous; styles distinct, rather short; stigmas plumose, laterally exserted.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis oblong in outline, semiterete, loosely enclosed between the lemma and palea; hilum basal, oblong, small; embryo about 1/2 as long as the caryopsis.
    Habit
    Stout aquatic or semi-aquatic perennials with creeping much-branched rhizomes.
    Stem
    Culms rather tall, robust, sheathed.
    Ligules
    Ligule a short membrane, densely ciliate along the apex.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a dense or loose many-flowered panicle.
    [FTEA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips And S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

    Habit
    Aquatic or semi-aquatic perennials, with usually tall culms
    Leaves
    Leaf-blades linear to narrowly lanceolate, flat, deciduous
    Inflorescences
    Panicles large, dense, profusely branched, silkily hairy
    Spikelets
    Spikelets 3–11-flowered, the lowest floret ♂ or barren, the following hermaphrodite, the uppermost ± reduced; rhachilla bearded above with long silky hairs; glumes 3–5-nerved; lemmas narrow, rounded or slightly keeled on the back, glabrous; lowest lemma much longer than the glumes, 3–7-nerved, ± persistent; fertile lemmas acuminate, 1–3-nerved; lodicules 2; stamens 3, or 2 in the lowest floret.
    [GB]

    nonem

    Habit
    Perennial. Rhizomes elongated. Stolons absent (3), or present (1). Culms erect; reed-like; 100-406.2-1000 cm long. Ligule a ciliate membrane. Leaf-blades deciduous at the ligule; linear (3), or lanceolate (1).
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle. Panicle open. Spikelets solitary. Fertile spikelets pedicelled. Pedicels filiform.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 3-4 fertile florets, or 5-11 fertile florets (3); with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets cuneate; laterally compressed; 7-11.75-18 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Floret callus elongated; bearded.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 3-4 fertile florets, or 5-11 fertile florets (3); with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets cuneate; laterally compressed; 7-11.75-18 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Floret callus elongated; bearded.
    Glume
    Glumes persistent; shorter than spikelet; gaping. Lower glume lanceolate (2), or elliptic (3), or oblong (1), or ovate (1); 0.5-0.625-1 length of upper glume; membranous; without keels; 3-5 -veined. Lower glume apex acute (3), or cuspidate (1). Upper glume lanceolate (2), or elliptic (3), or oblong (1), or ovate (1); 0.4-0.5875-0.9 length of adjacent fertile lemma; membranous; without keels; 3-5 -veined. Upper glume apex acute (3), or cuspidate (1); muticous, or mucronate (1).
    Florets
    Basal sterile florets male, or barren; with palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret lanceolate (1), or elliptic (3); 1 length of fertile lemma; membranous; 3-7 -veined; acuminate. Fertile lemma lanceolate; membranous; without keel; 1-3 -veined. Lemma apex acuminate. Palea 0.66 length of lemma; 2 -veined. Palea keels smooth (1), or scaberulous (3). Apical sterile florets resembling fertile though underdeveloped.
    Flowers
    Lodicules 2. Anthers 3. Ovary glabrous (3/3).
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp. Hilum elliptic (3/3).
    Distribution
    Europe (1), or Africa (3), or Temperate Asia (3), or Tropical Asia (2), or Australasia (2), or Pacific (2), or North America (1), or South America (1).

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Afghanistan, Alabama, Albania, Alberta, Algeria, Altay, Amur, Angola, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Argentina South, Arizona, Arkansas, Assam, Austria, Baleares, Baltic States, Bangladesh, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bismarck Archipelago, Bolivia, Borneo, Botswana, British Columbia, Bulgaria, Burkina, Burundi, Buryatiya, California, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Caroline Is., Central African Repu, Central European Rus, Chad, Chile Central, Chile North, Chile South, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Chita, Colombia, Colorado, Congo, Connecticut, Cook Is., Corse, Costa Rica, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Delaware, Denmark, District of Columbia, East Aegean Is., East European Russia, East Himalaya, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Finland, Florida, France, Free State, French Guiana, Gabon, Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Great Britain, Greece, Guatemala, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Gulf States, Guyana, Hainan, Hawaii, Honduras, Hungary, Idaho, Illinois, India, Indiana, Inner Mongolia, Iowa, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Irkutsk, Italy, Ivory Coast, Japan, Jawa, Kamchatka, Kansas, Kazakhstan, Kentucky, Kenya, Khabarovsk, Kirgizstan, Korea, Krasnoyarsk, Kriti, Krym, Kuril Is., Kuwait, KwaZulu-Natal, Laos, Lebanon-Syria, Lesotho, Lesser Sunda Is., Libya, Louisiana, Madagascar, Madeira, Maine, Malawi, Malaya, Mali, Maluku, Manchuria, Manitoba, Marianas, Marshall Is., Maryland, Masachusettes, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Mongolia, Montana, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nansei-shoto, Nebraska, Nepal, Netherlands, Nevada, New Brunswick, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New South Wales, New York, Newfoundland, Nicaragua, Nicobar Is., Niger, Nigeria, Norfolk Is., North Carolina, North Caucasus, North Dakota, North European Russi, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Northwest European R, Northwest Territorie, Norway, Nova Scotia, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oman, Ontario, Oregon, Pakistan, Palestine, Panamá, Pennsylvania, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Primorye, Prince Edward I., Qinghai, Queensland, Québec, Rhode I., Rodrigues, Romania, Rwanda, Réunion, Sakhalin, Sardegna, Saskatchewan, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sicilia, Sierra Leone, Sinai, Solomon Is., Somalia, South Australia, South Carolina, South Dakota, South European Russi, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Tadzhikistan, Taiwan, Tanzania, Tasmania, Tennessee, Texas, Thailand, Tibet, Togo, Transcaucasus, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Turkmenistan, Tuva, Uganda, Ukraine, Uruguay, Utah, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vermont, Victoria, Vietnam, Virginia, Washington, West Himalaya, West Siberia, West Virginia, Western Australia, Western Sahara, Wisconsin, Wyoming, Xinjiang, Yakutskiya, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Bahamas, Brazil Southeast, Dominican Republic, Haiti, Leeward Is., New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Puerto Rico, Trinidad-Tobago, Windward Is.

    Phragmites Adans. appears in other Kew resources:

    First published in Fam. Pl. 2: 34, 559 (1763)

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • Clayton in Kew Bull. 21: 113 (1967).
    • F.T.A. 10: 152 (1937)
    • Fam. PL 2: 34, 559 (1763)
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Fam. Pl. 2: 34, 559 (1763).
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Clayton in K.B. 21: 113 (1967)
    • Conert, Syst. Anat. Arund.: 36 (1961)
    • Fam. Pl. 2: 34, 559 (1763)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0