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This genus is accepted, and its native range is Temp. & Subtropical to Tropical Mountains.

[FZ]

Gramineae, E. Launert. Flora Zambesiaca 10:1. 1971

Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets pedicelled, solitary, 3-11-flowered, laterally compressed, muticous, gaping at maturity; rhachilla disarticulating above the glumes and between the florets; inferior floret sterile or male, the following bisexual but the uppermost usually reduced.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Glume
Glumes 3-5-nerved, sometimes with cross-veins, subequal to unequal, persistent, membranous, lanceolate, obovate to oblong, dorsally rounded, apex acute, subacute or sometimes obliquely truncate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Lemma
Lemmas heteromorphous, dorsally rounded, always glabrous, membranous; the inferior much longer than the inferior glume, usually persistent, 3 (sometimes 5-7-) nerved, linear-lanceolate, lanceolate-oblong or oblong, rather acute; the following (fertile), caducous, 3-1-nerved, linear lanceolate, with the apex acuminate or caudate-acuminate, thinly membranous; callus slender, straight or slightly curved, obtuse, densely bearded with long soft silky hairs.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Palea
Paleas much shorter than the corresponding lemmas, 2-keeled, oblong, hyaline.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Lodicules
Lodicules 2, glabrous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens 3 (2 in the inferior floret if present).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Pistil
Ovary glabrous; styles distinct, rather short; stigmas plumose, laterally exserted.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Caryopsis oblong in outline, semiterete, loosely enclosed between the lemma and palea; hilum basal, oblong, small; embryo about 1/2 as long as the caryopsis.
Morphology General Habit
Stout aquatic or semi-aquatic perennials with creeping much-branched rhizomes.
Morphology Stem
Culms rather tall, robust, sheathed.
Morphology Leaves Ligules
Ligule a short membrane, densely ciliate along the apex.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence a dense or loose many-flowered panicle.

[FTEA]

Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips And S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

Morphology General Habit
Aquatic or semi-aquatic perennials, with usually tall culms
Morphology Leaves
Leaf-blades linear to narrowly lanceolate, flat, deciduous
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Panicles large, dense, profusely branched, silkily hairy
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets 3–11-flowered, the lowest floret ♂ or barren, the following hermaphrodite, the uppermost ± reduced; rhachilla bearded above with long silky hairs; glumes 3–5-nerved; lemmas narrow, rounded or slightly keeled on the back, glabrous; lowest lemma much longer than the glumes, 3–7-nerved, ± persistent; fertile lemmas acuminate, 1–3-nerved; lodicules 2; stamens 3, or 2 in the lowest floret.

[FSOM]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Morphology General Habit
Tall rhizomatous perennial reed; leaves cauline, the blades deciduous; ligule a very short membrane with a long-ciliate margin
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Panicle large, plumose
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets with lowest floret male or empty; glumes shorter than the lowest lemma, 3- to 5-nerved; floret-callus linear, plumose; fertile lemmas hyaline, 1- to 3-nerved, glabrous, long-caudate (though very fragile and the long narrow tip often breaking off), entire.
Distribution
Three or four species worldwide.

[GB]

nonem

Morphology General Habit
Perennial. Rhizomes elongated. Stolons absent (3), or present (1). Culms erect; reed-like; 100-406.2-1000 cm long. Ligule a ciliate membrane. Leaf-blades deciduous at the ligule; linear (3), or lanceolate (1).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence a panicle. Panicle open. Spikelets solitary. Fertile spikelets pedicelled. Pedicels filiform.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 3-4 fertile florets, or 5-11 fertile florets (3); with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets cuneate; laterally compressed; 7-11.75-18 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Floret callus elongated; bearded.
Fertile
Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 3-4 fertile florets, or 5-11 fertile florets (3); with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets cuneate; laterally compressed; 7-11.75-18 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Floret callus elongated; bearded.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Glume
Glumes persistent; shorter than spikelet; gaping. Lower glume lanceolate (2), or elliptic (3), or oblong (1), or ovate (1); 0.5-0.625-1 length of upper glume; membranous; without keels; 3-5 -veined. Lower glume apex acute (3), or cuspidate (1). Upper glume lanceolate (2), or elliptic (3), or oblong (1), or ovate (1); 0.4-0.5875-0.9 length of adjacent fertile lemma; membranous; without keels; 3-5 -veined. Upper glume apex acute (3), or cuspidate (1); muticous, or mucronate (1).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Florets
Basal sterile florets male, or barren; with palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret lanceolate (1), or elliptic (3); 1 length of fertile lemma; membranous; 3-7 -veined; acuminate. Fertile lemma lanceolate; membranous; without keel; 1-3 -veined. Lemma apex acuminate. Palea 0.66 length of lemma; 2 -veined. Palea keels smooth (1), or scaberulous (3). Apical sterile florets resembling fertile though underdeveloped.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Lodicules 2. Anthers 3. Ovary glabrous (3/3).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Caryopsis with adherent pericarp. Hilum elliptic (3/3).
Distribution
Europe (1), or Africa (3), or Temperate Asia (3), or Tropical Asia (2), or Australasia (2), or Pacific (2), or North America (1), or South America (1).

Native to:

Afghanistan, Alabama, Albania, Alberta, Algeria, Altay, Amur, Angola, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Argentina South, Arizona, Arkansas, Assam, Austria, Baleares, Baltic States, Bangladesh, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bismarck Archipelago, Bolivia, Borneo, Botswana, British Columbia, Bulgaria, Burkina, Burundi, Buryatiya, California, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Caroline Is., Central African Repu, Central European Rus, Chad, Chile Central, Chile North, Chile South, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Chita, Colombia, Colorado, Congo, Connecticut, Cook Is., Corse, Costa Rica, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Delaware, Denmark, District of Columbia, East Aegean Is., East European Russia, East Himalaya, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Finland, Florida, France, Free State, French Guiana, Gabon, Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Great Britain, Greece, Guatemala, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Gulf States, Guyana, Hainan, Hawaii, Honduras, Hungary, Idaho, Illinois, India, Indiana, Inner Mongolia, Iowa, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Irkutsk, Italy, Ivory Coast, Japan, Jawa, Kamchatka, Kansas, Kazakhstan, Kentucky, Kenya, Khabarovsk, Kirgizstan, Korea, Krasnoyarsk, Kriti, Krym, Kuril Is., Kuwait, KwaZulu-Natal, Laos, Lebanon-Syria, Lesotho, Lesser Sunda Is., Libya, Louisiana, Madagascar, Madeira, Maine, Malawi, Malaya, Mali, Maluku, Manchuria, Manitoba, Marianas, Marshall Is., Maryland, Massachusetts, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Mongolia, Montana, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nansei-shoto, Nebraska, Nepal, Netherlands, Nevada, New Brunswick, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New South Wales, New York, Newfoundland, Nicaragua, Nicobar Is., Niger, Nigeria, Norfolk Is., North Carolina, North Caucasus, North Dakota, North European Russi, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Northwest European R, Northwest Territorie, Norway, Nova Scotia, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oman, Ontario, Oregon, Pakistan, Palestine, Panamá, Pennsylvania, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Primorye, Prince Edward I., Qinghai, Queensland, Québec, Rhode I., Rodrigues, Romania, Rwanda, Réunion, Sakhalin, Sardegna, Saskatchewan, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sicilia, Sierra Leone, Sinai, Solomon Is., Somalia, South Australia, South Carolina, South Dakota, South European Russi, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Tadzhikistan, Taiwan, Tanzania, Tasmania, Tennessee, Texas, Thailand, Tibet, Togo, Transcaucasus, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Turkmenistan, Tuva, Uganda, Ukraine, Uruguay, Utah, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vermont, Victoria, Vietnam, Virginia, Washington, West Himalaya, West Siberia, West Virginia, Western Australia, Western Sahara, Wisconsin, Wyoming, Xinjiang, Yakutskiya, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Introduced into:

Bahamas, Brazil Southeast, Dominican Republic, Haiti, Leeward Is., New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Puerto Rico, Trinidad-Tobago, Windward Is.

Phragmites Adans. appears in other Kew resources:

First published in Fam. Pl. 2: 34, 559 (1763)

Accepted by

  • Govaerts, R. (2019). World Checklist of Vascular Plants (WCVP Database) The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Literature

Flora of West Tropical Africa

  • Clayton in Kew Bull. 21: 113 (1967).
  • F.T.A. 10: 152 (1937)
  • Fam. PL 2: 34, 559 (1763)

Flora Zambesiaca

  • Fam. Pl. 2: 34, 559 (1763).

Flora of Somalia

  • Flora Somalia, Vol 4, (1995) Author: by T. A. Cope [updated by M. Thulin 2008]

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • Clayton in K.B. 21: 113 (1967)
  • Conert, Syst. Anat. Arund.: 36 (1961)
  • Fam. Pl. 2: 34, 559 (1763)

Flora Zambesiaca
Flora Zambesiaca
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Somalia
Flora of Somalia
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0