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This genus is accepted, and its native range is Temp. Northern Hemisphere, NW. Africa, Eritrea to Malawi.
Heracleum moellendorffii

[FTEA]

Umbelliferae, C.C. Townsend. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1989

Morphology General Habit
Perennial or biennial herbs, dwarf to gigantic, glabrous or more frequently ± densely furnished with unicellular, simple and subglandular hairs
Morphology Leaves
Leaves simple and lobed to 1–2-pinnately or ternately divided with usually broad, dentate-incised to pinnatifid segments; sheaths often large, soft
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Umbels numerous, compound, pedunculate; involucre present or absent; involucel usually of numerous narrow bracteoles
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers polygamous
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx-teeth present, small and usually deciduous
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals white to creamy, greenish or pink, the outer petals of the outer partial umbels slightly to very conspicuously radiate, the inner with an inflexed tip
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit very strongly dorsally compressed with thickened marginal wings and 3 filiform but often quite prominent dorsal ribs, glabrous to hairy; stylopodia conical, from a broad crenate-margined discoid base; vittae solitary in the valleculae, 0–2 on the commissure, slender to clavate, usually reaching most of the way down each mericarp but sometimes short; carpophore deeply bifid
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Endosperm very flattened, shallowly rounded dorsally or sulcate at the vittae, flat or slightly concave centrally on the commissural face.

[FZ]

Umbelliferae, J. F. M. Cannon. Flora Zambesiaca 4. 1978

Morphology General Habit
Perennial, biennial or annual herbs.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves pinnately divided, usually with broad segments.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Umbels compound; bracts 0; bracteoles several.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx teeth minute or obsolete, unequal.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals white (sometimes flushed with pink, especially in bud), often markedly unequal and radiate, those on the outer margin of the umbel being much larger than those on the inside, the whole umbel therefore tending to function like a capitulum in attracting insects, although the individual flowers remain quite distinct.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit orbicular to broadly obovate, very strongly dorsally compressed, with a broad commissure. Marginal ridges expanded to form a broad wing, the dorsal ones filiform; wings somewhat thickened and closely appressed to those of the opposing mericarp.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits Vittae
Vittae solitary in the intervals, clearly visible from the exterior, and tending to be club-shaped, narrowing towards the base, with 2 in the commissural face.

[FIQ]

Ghazanfar, S. A. & Edmondson, J. R (Eds). (2014) Flora of Iraq, Volume 5 Part 2: Lythraceae to Campanulaceae.

Morphology General Habit
Perennial or biennial herbs, very variable in stature, some gigantic, some dwarf, usually ± pubescent, setose or scabrous
Morphology Leaves
Leaves 1–3-pinnate with broad segments or variably trisect or ternate to entire and ± lobed
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Umbels compound, the central hermaphrodite and laterals with central flowers male, or hermaphrodite
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts
Bracts of involucre mostly absent or caducous, bracteoles several-Flowers white, regular, outer usually ± radiant
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals long-cuneate below, outer obcordate above from the deeply 2-lobed or emarginate tips, inner with an incurved acumen
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx teeth small
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit ± round, elliptical or obcordate, strongly plano compressed dorsally, pubescent at least when young Mericarps almost flat, the 3 median ribs slender and not conspicuous, laterals with thickened margins, closely contiguous and forming a wing to the fruit
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits Vittae
Vittae solitary in valleculae, shorter than the fruit, conspicuous and swollen at end and appearing narrowly claviform
Disc
Disk and stylopodia variable, conical-Carpophore bipartite
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds Endosperm
Endosperm with the commissural face flat, commissural vittae 0–2.
Distribution
About 70 species in the N temperate region and on mountains in the tropics, but specific limits often uncertain; two species in Iraq.
Note
Heracleum (the name of a plant in Theophrastus, from Gr. πᾰνάκεια χηρακλειον panakeia herakleion (“all-heal Hercules”), some species of the genus having been at one time used medicinally); Cow- Parsnip, Cowparsnip (Am.). According to Uphof (1968), the boiled leaves and fruit of the Common Cow-Parsnip (H. sphondylium) formed the basis of an alcoholic beverage, known as Bartsch in Slavonic countries, which is still used in some French liqueurs.

Native to:

Afghanistan, Alaska, Albania, Alberta, Aleutian Is., Algeria, Altay, Amur, Arizona, Assam, Austria, Belgium, British Columbia, Bulgaria, Buryatiya, California, Central European Rus, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Chita, Colorado, Connecticut, Czechoslovakia, Delaware, Denmark, East European Russia, East Himalaya, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Finland, France, Georgia, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Hungary, Idaho, Illinois, India, Indiana, Inner Mongolia, Iowa, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Irkutsk, Italy, Japan, Kamchatka, Kansas, Kazakhstan, Kentucky, Kenya, Khabarovsk, Kirgizstan, Korea, Krasnoyarsk, Krym, Kuril Is., Labrador, Lebanon-Syria, Maine, Malawi, Manchuria, Manitoba, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Mongolia, Montana, Morocco, Myanmar, Nebraska, Nepal, Netherlands, Nevada, New Brunswick, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, Newfoundland, North Carolina, North Caucasus, North Dakota, North European Russi, Northwest European R, Northwest Territorie, Norway, Nova Scotia, Ohio, Ontario, Oregon, Pakistan, Pennsylvania, Poland, Portugal, Primorye, Prince Edward I., Qinghai, Québec, Rhode I., Romania, Sakhalin, Saskatchewan, Sicilia, South Dakota, Spain, Sudan, Sumatera, Switzerland, Tadzhikistan, Tanzania, Tennessee, Tibet, Transcaucasus, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Tuva, Uganda, Ukraine, Utah, Uzbekistan, Vermont, Vietnam, Virginia, Washington, West Himalaya, West Siberia, West Virginia, Wisconsin, Wyoming, Xinjiang, Yakutskiya, Yugoslavia, Yukon, Zaïre

Introduced into:

Argentina South, District of Columbia, Haiti, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Sweden

Heracleum L. appears in other Kew resources:

First published in Sp. Pl.: 249 (1753)

Accepted by

  • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1968). Flora Europaea 2: 1-469. Cambridge University Press.

Literature

Flora of Iraq

  • Linnaeus, Gen. Pl. ed. 5: 118 (1754)
  • Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. ed. 1: 249 (1753);

Flora Zambesiaca

  • Gen. Pl. ed. 5: 118 (1754).
  • Sp. Pl. 1: 249 (1753)

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • L., Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 118 (1754)
  • Sp. Pl.: 249 (1753)

Flora Zambesiaca
Flora Zambesiaca
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Iraq
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0