1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Coix L.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Indian Subcontinent to Taiwan and W. Malesia, N. Queensland.

    [GB]

    nonem

    Habit
    Annual (3), or perennial (1). Rhizomes absent (3), or elongated (1). Culms rambling (1/1); 60-146.2-250 cm long; spongy (1), or firm (3). Ligule an eciliate membrane. Leaf-blades linear, or lanceolate (3).
    Inflorescences
    Monoecious; with a male and a female inflorescence subtended by the same spatheole. Synflorescence compound; paniculate. Inflorescence composed of racemes; axillary; deciduous as a whole; subtended by a spatheole; exserted, or enclosed. Spatheole ovate (3), or globose (2); indurate. Peduncle widened at apex; disarticulating. Racemes single; bearing a triad of spikelets. Rhachis obsolete. Spikelets in threes. Fertile spikelets sessile; 1 in the cluster. Companion sterile spikelets pedicelled; 2 in the cluster. Male spikelets sessile (2/3), or sessile and pedicelled (1/3), or pedicelled (1/3); 2 in a cluster (3), or 3 in a cluster (2). Pedicels linear. Male inflorescence unlike female; a single raceme. Male spikelets distinct from female; elliptic (1/2), or ovate (1/2). Male spikelet glumes 2; muticous. Male spikelet lemma muticous.
    Spikelets
    Companion sterile spikelets represented by barren pedicels. Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets ovate; dorsally compressed; 4-7.25-9 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures.
    Sterile
    Companion sterile spikelets represented by barren pedicels.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets ovate; dorsally compressed; 4-7.25-9 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures.
    Glume
    Glumes reaching apex of florets. Lower glume lanceolate (1), or oblong (1), or ovate (1), or orbicular (2); membranous (3), or chartaceous (1); without keels. Lower glume surface convex (3), or flat (1). Lower glume apex acute (1), or cuspidate (3). Upper glume oblong (1), or ovate (3); hyaline (1), or membranous (3); with undifferentiated margins (1), or hyaline margins (3); 1-keeled; 11 -veined (1/1). Upper glume apex acute (1), or cuspidate (3).
    Florets
    Basal sterile florets barren; with palea (1), or without significant palea (3). Lemma of lower sterile floret lanceolate (1), or oblong (1), or ovate (3); membranous; 5 -veined (1/2), or 7 -veined (1/2); acute (1), or acuminate (1), or cuspidate (2). Fertile florets female. Fertile lemma lanceolate (2), or oblong (1), or ovate (2); membranous; of similar consistency above (1), or firmer above (3); keeled; 3-4 -veined (1/2), or 5 -veined (2/2). Lemma lateral veins obscure (1/1). Lemma surface without grooves (2), or with 2 longitudinal grooves (2). Lemma apex acute (1), or acuminate (1), or rostrate (2). Palea hyaline; 2 -veined; without keels.
    Flowers
    Lodicules absent (3/3), or 2 (3/3); fleshy (3/3). Anthers 3. Stigmas 2; papillose.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp; orbicular (2/2). Embryo 1 length of caryopsis.
    Male
    Male inflorescence unlike female; a single raceme. Male spikelets distinct from female; elliptic (1/2), or ovate (1/2). Male spikelet glumes 2; muticous. Male spikelet lemma muticous.
    Distribution
    Europe (1), or Africa (1), or Temperate Asia (3), or Tropical Asia (3), or Australasia (3), or Pacific (1), or North America (1), or South America (1).
    [FTEA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips And S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

    Habit
    Robust annuals or perennials with erect or floating culms and broad flat leaf-blades; ligule short, membranous
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences terminal and axillary, often numerous, each subtended by a globose or elongated ivory-like cupule (a modified leaf-sheath within which is a membranous prophyll) and comprising 2 racemes; female raceme enclosed by the cupule, and consisting of 1 sessile spikelet accompanied by 2 barren pedicels; male raceme exserted from the mouth of the cupule, the spikelets imbricate and borne in pairs or threes, one pedicelled, the other(s) sessile
    Spikelets
    Female spikelet; glumes orbicular, membranous with a cartilaginous beak, the upper keeled; lower floret represented by an orbicular membranous lemma; upper floret with membranous lemma and palea, the 2 stigmas exserted from the cupule Male spikelet lanceolate to elliptic-oblong; lower glume flat on the back, 2-keeled, the keels winged above; upper glume boat-shaped; florets 2, with membranous lemma and palea, the lower as long as the spikelet, the upper shorter and sometimes barren
    Female
    Female spikelet; glumes orbicular, membranous with a cartilaginous beak, the upper keeled; lower floret represented by an orbicular membranous lemma; upper floret with membranous lemma and palea, the 2 stigmas exserted from the cupule
    Male
    Male spikelet lanceolate to elliptic-oblong; lower glume flat on the back, 2-keeled, the keels winged above; upper glume boat-shaped; florets 2, with membranous lemma and palea, the lower as long as the spikelet, the upper shorter and sometimes barren
    Fruits
    Caryopsis subglobose to ellipsoid.

    Images

    Distribution

    Doubtfully present in:

    Afghanistan

    Native to:

    Andaman Is., Assam, Bangladesh, Borneo, Cambodia, China South-Central, China Southeast, East Himalaya, Hainan, India, Laos, Malaya, Myanmar, Nepal, Nicobar Is., Philippines, Queensland, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, Tibet, Vietnam, West Himalaya

    Introduced into:

    Algeria, Angola, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Austria, Benin, Bismarck Archipelago, Bolivia, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Burundi, Cameroon, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Caroline Is., Central African Repu, China North-Central, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Cook Is., Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Easter Is., Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Fiji, France, French Guiana, Gabon, Galápagos, Gambia, Ghana, Greece, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Guyana, Haiti, Hawaii, Honduras, Inner Mongolia, Iraq, Italy, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Japan, Jawa, Kenya, Korea, Kriti, KwaZulu-Natal, Leeward Is., Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Louisiana, Madagascar, Madeira, Mali, Maluku, Manchuria, Marianas, Marquesas, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Nansei-shoto, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New Jersey, New York, New Zealand North, Nicaragua, Nigeria, Niue, North Caucasus, Northern Provinces, Ohio, Pakistan, Palestine, Panamá, Paraguay, Pennsylvania, Peru, Pitcairn Is., Puerto Rico, Rodrigues, Réunion, Samoa, Santa Cruz Is., Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sicilia, Sierra Leone, Society Is., Solomon Is., Spain, St.Helena, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Suriname, Tanzania, Tennessee, Togo, Tonga, Transcaucasus, Trinidad-Tobago, Tubuai Is., Turkey-in-Europe, Uganda, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Windward Is., Xinjiang, Zaïre

    Coix L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8625] K001131007

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 972 (1753)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R.H.A. (2011). World checklist of selected plant families published update Facilitated by the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • F.T.A. 9: 27 (1917).
    • Gen. Pl. ed. 5, 419 (1754)
    • Sp. Pl. 972 (1753)
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • L., Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 419 (1754)
    • Sp. Pl.: 972 (1753)

    Sources

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0