1. Family: Rhizophoraceae Pers.
    1. Rhizophora L.

      1. This genus is accepted, and is native to Asia-Tropical, Africa, Pacific, Southern America, Northern America and Asia-Temperate..

    [FZ]

    Rhizophoraceae, A. R. Torre & A. E. Gonçalves. Flora Zambesiaca 4. 1978

    Habit
    Wholly glabrous evergreen shrubs or trees of muddy sea-shores and estuaries, with stems supported by numerous aerial, adventitious, branched, capped prop-roots developed from the upper nodes; pneumatophores absent; branches stout, opposite.
    Leaves
    Leaves decussate, petiolate; leaf-lamina entire, leathery, usually black-dotted beneath, with nerves obscure below and visible or distinct above, midrib protruding at the tip into a caducous mucro; stipules large, lanceolate, ± red when fresh.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences cymose, simple or 2–3-dichotomously-branched, axillary, peduncled.
    Flowers
    Flowers bisexual, 2-bracteolate, shortly pedicellate.
    Calyx
    Calyx glabrous, leathery, surrounded at the base by a persistent cup-shaped pair of bracteoles, accrescent and reflexed in fruit; calyx-tube ± adnate to the ovary; calyx-lobes 4(5).
    Corolla
    Petals entire, not clawed, inserted at the mouth of the calyx-tube.
    Stamens
    Stamens 4 epipetalous plus 4 or 8 episepalous, inserted on the margin of the crenulate disk, sessile or subsessile; anthers narrowly oblong, triquetrous, pointed, with numerous pollen-sacs within a membranous epidermis, multilocular, opening by a large ventral valve.
    Pistil
    Ovary inferior to semi-inferior, 2-locular, each locule 2-ovulate; style obscure or up to 6 mm. long, with a simple or shortly 2-lobed stigma.
    Fruits
    Fruit a leathery, indehiscent, mostly 1-seeded (very rarely 2–3-seeded) berry, included in and ± adnate to the calyx-tube, with a granular or roughened surface; cotyledons connate into a fleshy body continuous with but set off from a clavate, elongate hypocotyl which perforates the apex of the fruit and falls out of it; endosperm absent.
    [FTEA]

    Rhizophoraceae, John Lewis. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1956

    Habit
    Trees or shrubs of muddy shores and estuaries, with stout opposite branches
    Roots
    Aerial roots present as prop-roots and (adventitiously) developed from upper nodes
    Leaves
    Leaves evergreen, opposite, petiolate, entire, leathery and glabrous
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences cymose; bracteoles paired and persistent
    Calyx
    Calyx connate below, adnate to the ovary, 4 (–5)-partite, persistent, becoming reflexed
    Stamens
    Stamens 8–12 in a single whorl; anthers narrowly oblong, longer than the filaments, basifixed, triquetrous, having numerous pollen sacs within a membranous epidermis
    Ovary
    Ovary inferior to half inferior, 2-celled; placentae 2-ovulate
    Fruits
    Fruit a leathery indehiscent berry
    Seeds
    Hypocotyl terete, swollen subdistally, pointed Seed usually solitary (very rarely 2), viviparous; endosperm absent Embryo falling by separation from the cotyledons, leaving the fruit on the tree.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Aldabra, Andaman Is., Angola, Aruba, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Belize, Benin, Bermuda, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Cabinda, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Cayman Is., Cocos (Keeling) Is., Colombia, Congo, Costa Rica, Cuba, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Eritrea, Fiji, Florida, French Guiana, Gabon, Galápagos, Gambia, Ghana, Gilbert Is., Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Gulf States, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, India, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Leeward Is., Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Malaya, Maldives, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Mozambique, Mozambique Channel I, Netherlands Antilles, New Caledonia, New Guinea, Nicaragua, Nicobar Is., Nigeria, Panamá, Peru, Philippines, Puerto Rico, Rodrigues, Samoa, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Solomon Is., Somalia, Southwest Caribbean, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Tanzania, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad-Tobago, Turks-Caicos Is., Tuvalu, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Wallis-Futuna Is., Windward Is., Yemen, Zaïre

    Introduced into:

    Chagos Archipelago, Hawaii, Texas

    Rhizophora L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Coode, M. [4516], Mauritius 35409.000
    70000.256

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 443 (1753)

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • —F.T.A. 2: 407.
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Salvoza in Nat. Appl. Sci. Bull. 5: 179 (1936).
    • Gen. Pl. ed. 5: 202 (1754).
    • Sp. Pl. 1: 443 (1753)
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Salvoza in Natural appl. Sci. Bull. 5: 179 (1936)
    • L., Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 202 (1754)
    • Sp. Pl., 443 (1753)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0