Skip to main content
  1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Hyperthelia Clayton

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & S. Africa, Madagascar.

    [FTEA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips And S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

    Habit
    Tall annuals or perennials
    Leaves
    Leaf-blades linear; ligule scarious, sometimes adnate to sheath-auricles
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence composed of paired racemes subtended by spatheoles and crowded into a large leafy false panicle; racemes short, deflexed or not, with a single homogamous pair at the base of the lower; raceme-bases unequal, terete, the tip produced into a scarious appendage; internodes and pedicels linear
    Spikelets
    Sessile spikelet terete; callus pungent, applied obliquely to the top of the internode; lower glume coriaceous, with a median longitudinal groove, otherwise rounded on back and sides, herbaceous or membranous at the tip; upper glume with or without an awn; lower floret reduced to a hyaline lemma; upper lemma hyaline, bidentate, passing between the teeth into a stout awn with hairy column Pedicelled spikelet ♂, narrowed at the base to an indistinct conical callus, muticous or aristulate.
    Sessile
    Sessile spikelet terete; callus pungent, applied obliquely to the top of the internode; lower glume coriaceous, with a median longitudinal groove, otherwise rounded on back and sides, herbaceous or membranous at the tip; upper glume with or without an awn; lower floret reduced to a hyaline lemma; upper lemma hyaline, bidentate, passing between the teeth into a stout awn with hairy column
    Fruits
    Caryopsis narrowly elliptic
    Pedicelled
    Pedicelled spikelet ♂, narrowed at the base to an indistinct conical callus, muticous or aristulate.
    [FZ]

    Gramineae, T. A. Cope. Flora Zambesiaca 10:4. 2002

    Habit
    Tall annuals or perennials.
    Ligules
    Ligule scarious, sometimes adnate to the sheath-auricles; leaf laminas linear.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence composed of paired racemes subtended by spatheoles and crowded into a large leafy false panicle; racemes short, with (1)2(10) sessile spikelets per pair, deflexed or not, with a single homogamous spikelet pair at the base of the inferior raceme; raceme-bases unequal, terete, the apex oblique and produced into a scarious appendage, this flat or rolled into a funnel about the base of the raceme; internodes and pedicels linear.
    Spikelets
    Sessile spikelet terete; callus pungent, applied obliquely to the apex of the internode; inferior glume coriaceous, with a median longitudinal groove, otherwise rounded on the back and sides, herbaceous or membranous at the apex; superior glume with or without an awn; inferior floret reduced to a hyaline lemma; superior lemma hyaline, bidentate, passing between the teeth into a stout awn with hirsute column. Pedicelled spikelet male, narrowed at the base to an indistinct conical callus, muticous or aristulate.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis narrowly elliptic.
    [GB]

    nonem

    Habit
    Annual (5), or perennial (2). Culms erect (3/3); 100-233.7-570 cm long; without nodal roots (2/4), or with prop roots (4/4). Leaf-sheath auricles absent (5), or erect (5). Ligule an eciliate membrane. Leaf-blade base without a false petiole (6), or with a false petiole (1). Leaf-blades linear, or lanceolate (1).
    Inflorescences
    Synflorescence compound; scanty (1), or linear (1), or paniculate (3), or fastigiate (2). Inflorescence composed of racemes; terminal and axillary; subtended by a spatheole; exserted (2), or embraced at base by subtending leaf (2), or enclosed (3). Spatheole linear (1), or lanceolate (6); scarious. Racemes paired; side by side (6), or with abortive upper raceme represented by a single sterile spikelet (1); erect (3), or ascending (1), or spreading (1), or deflexed (3); bearing few fertile spikelets; bearing 1 fertile spikelets on each (6), or 2-5 fertile spikelets on each (1). Rhachis fragile at the nodes. Rhachis internodes filiform (6), or linear (1). Rhachis internode tip oblique; flat. Raceme-bases filiform; subequal (1), or unequal (the longer measured); extended into an oblong appendage (5), or extended into a flask-like appendage (2). Spikelets in pairs. Fertile spikelets sessile; 1 in the cluster. Companion sterile spikelets pedicelled; 1 in the cluster. Pedicels filiform; tip rectangular (1), or oblique (6).
    Spikelets
    Basal sterile spikelets well-developed. Companion sterile spikelets well-developed; deciduous with the fertile (6/6). Companion sterile spikelet callus indistinct (1), or cuneate (6). Companion sterile spikelet glumes muticous (4), or awned (6). Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets linear; subterete; 7.47-13.97-35 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures. Spikelet callus cuneate; pubescent (1), or pilose (4), or bearded (2); base acute (1), or pungent (6); attached obliquely.
    Sterile
    Basal sterile spikelets well-developed. Companion sterile spikelets well-developed; deciduous with the fertile (6/6). Companion sterile spikelet callus indistinct (1), or cuneate (6). Companion sterile spikelet glumes muticous (4), or awned (6).
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets linear; subterete; 7.47-13.97-35 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures. Spikelet callus cuneate; pubescent (1), or pilose (4), or bearded (2); base acute (1), or pungent (6); attached obliquely.
    Glume
    Glumes exceeding apex of florets; firmer than fertile lemma. Lower glume oblong; coriaceous; without keels; 6 -veined (2/5), or 7-9 -veined (1/5), or 10 -veined (3/5), or 11 -veined (2/5), or 12-14 -veined (3/5). Lower glume surface with a longitudinal median groove; glabrous (1), or puberulous (1), or pubescent (5). Lower glume apex dentate; 2 -fid; setaceously attenuate (2/2); muticous (6), or mucronate (1). Upper glume oblong; coriaceous; without keels; 3 -veined. Upper glume apex emarginate (2/4), or acute (1/4), or setaceously attenuate (1/4); muticous (3), or mucronate (3), or awned (3); 1 -awned (2/2).
    Florets
    Basal sterile florets barren; without significant palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret oblong (6/6); hyaline; 2 -veined (6/6). Fertile lemma linear; hyaline; without keel; 3 -veined (6/6). Lemma margins eciliate (2), or ciliate (5). Lemma apex dentate (6), or lobed (1); 2 -fid; incised 0.1-0.1667-0.25 of lemma length; awned; 1 -awned. Principal lemma awn from a sinus; geniculate. Column of lemma awn puberulous (1), or pubescent (2), or hirtellous (4). Palea absent or minute.
    Flowers
    Anthers 3 (1/1).
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp (1/1); fusiform (1/1).
    Distribution
    Africa, or North America (1), or South America (1).

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Benin, Botswana, Burkina, Burundi, Cameroon, Caprivi Strip, Central African Repu, Chad, Congo, Ethiopia, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Rwanda, Senegal, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Colombia, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Nicaragua

    Accepted Species

    Other Data

    Hyperthelia Clayton appears in other Kew resources:

    Bibliography

    First published in Kew Bull. 20: 438 (1966 publ. 1967)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R.H.A. (2011). World checklist of selected plant families published update Facilitated by the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa

    • in Kew Bull. 20: 438 (1966).

    Flora Zambesiaca

    • in Kew Bull. 20: 438 (1966).

    Flora of Tropical East Africa

    • in K.B. 20: 438 (1966)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0