1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Hyperthelia Clayton

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & S. Africa, Madagascar.

    [FTEA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips And S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

    Habit
    Tall annuals or perennials
    Leaves
    Leaf-blades linear; ligule scarious, sometimes adnate to sheath-auricles
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence composed of paired racemes subtended by spatheoles and crowded into a large leafy false panicle; racemes short, deflexed or not, with a single homogamous pair at the base of the lower; raceme-bases unequal, terete, the tip produced into a scarious appendage; internodes and pedicels linear
    Spikelets
    Sessile spikelet terete; callus pungent, applied obliquely to the top of the internode; lower glume coriaceous, with a median longitudinal groove, otherwise rounded on back and sides, herbaceous or membranous at the tip; upper glume with or without an awn; lower floret reduced to a hyaline lemma; upper lemma hyaline, bidentate, passing between the teeth into a stout awn with hairy column Pedicelled spikelet ♂, narrowed at the base to an indistinct conical callus, muticous or aristulate.
    Sessile
    Sessile spikelet terete; callus pungent, applied obliquely to the top of the internode; lower glume coriaceous, with a median longitudinal groove, otherwise rounded on back and sides, herbaceous or membranous at the tip; upper glume with or without an awn; lower floret reduced to a hyaline lemma; upper lemma hyaline, bidentate, passing between the teeth into a stout awn with hairy column
    Fruits
    Caryopsis narrowly elliptic
    Pedicelled
    Pedicelled spikelet ♂, narrowed at the base to an indistinct conical callus, muticous or aristulate.
    [FZ]

    Gramineae, T. A. Cope. Flora Zambesiaca 10:4. 2002

    Habit
    Tall annuals or perennials.
    Ligules
    Ligule scarious, sometimes adnate to the sheath-auricles; leaf laminas linear.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence composed of paired racemes subtended by spatheoles and crowded into a large leafy false panicle; racemes short, with (1)2(10) sessile spikelets per pair, deflexed or not, with a single homogamous spikelet pair at the base of the inferior raceme; raceme-bases unequal, terete, the apex oblique and produced into a scarious appendage, this flat or rolled into a funnel about the base of the raceme; internodes and pedicels linear.
    Spikelets
    Sessile spikelet terete; callus pungent, applied obliquely to the apex of the internode; inferior glume coriaceous, with a median longitudinal groove, otherwise rounded on the back and sides, herbaceous or membranous at the apex; superior glume with or without an awn; inferior floret reduced to a hyaline lemma; superior lemma hyaline, bidentate, passing between the teeth into a stout awn with hirsute column. Pedicelled spikelet male, narrowed at the base to an indistinct conical callus, muticous or aristulate.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis narrowly elliptic.
    [GB]

    nonem

    Habit
    Annual (5), or perennial (2). Culms erect (3/3); 100-233.7-570 cm long; without nodal roots (2/4), or with prop roots (4/4). Leaf-sheath auricles absent (5), or erect (5). Ligule an eciliate membrane. Leaf-blade base without a false petiole (6), or with a false petiole (1). Leaf-blades linear, or lanceolate (1).
    Inflorescences
    Synflorescence compound; scanty (1), or linear (1), or paniculate (3), or fastigiate (2). Inflorescence composed of racemes; terminal and axillary; subtended by a spatheole; exserted (2), or embraced at base by subtending leaf (2), or enclosed (3). Spatheole linear (1), or lanceolate (6); scarious. Racemes paired; side by side (6), or with abortive upper raceme represented by a single sterile spikelet (1); erect (3), or ascending (1), or spreading (1), or deflexed (3); bearing few fertile spikelets; bearing 1 fertile spikelets on each (6), or 2-5 fertile spikelets on each (1). Rhachis fragile at the nodes. Rhachis internodes filiform (6), or linear (1). Rhachis internode tip oblique; flat. Raceme-bases filiform; subequal (1), or unequal (the longer measured); extended into an oblong appendage (5), or extended into a flask-like appendage (2). Spikelets in pairs. Fertile spikelets sessile; 1 in the cluster. Companion sterile spikelets pedicelled; 1 in the cluster. Pedicels filiform; tip rectangular (1), or oblique (6).
    Spikelets
    Basal sterile spikelets well-developed. Companion sterile spikelets well-developed; deciduous with the fertile (6/6). Companion sterile spikelet callus indistinct (1), or cuneate (6). Companion sterile spikelet glumes muticous (4), or awned (6). Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets linear; subterete; 7.47-13.97-35 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures. Spikelet callus cuneate; pubescent (1), or pilose (4), or bearded (2); base acute (1), or pungent (6); attached obliquely.
    Sterile
    Basal sterile spikelets well-developed. Companion sterile spikelets well-developed; deciduous with the fertile (6/6). Companion sterile spikelet callus indistinct (1), or cuneate (6). Companion sterile spikelet glumes muticous (4), or awned (6).
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets linear; subterete; 7.47-13.97-35 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures. Spikelet callus cuneate; pubescent (1), or pilose (4), or bearded (2); base acute (1), or pungent (6); attached obliquely.
    Glume
    Glumes exceeding apex of florets; firmer than fertile lemma. Lower glume oblong; coriaceous; without keels; 6 -veined (2/5), or 7-9 -veined (1/5), or 10 -veined (3/5), or 11 -veined (2/5), or 12-14 -veined (3/5). Lower glume surface with a longitudinal median groove; glabrous (1), or puberulous (1), or pubescent (5). Lower glume apex dentate; 2 -fid; setaceously attenuate (2/2); muticous (6), or mucronate (1). Upper glume oblong; coriaceous; without keels; 3 -veined. Upper glume apex emarginate (2/4), or acute (1/4), or setaceously attenuate (1/4); muticous (3), or mucronate (3), or awned (3); 1 -awned (2/2).
    Florets
    Basal sterile florets barren; without significant palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret oblong (6/6); hyaline; 2 -veined (6/6). Fertile lemma linear; hyaline; without keel; 3 -veined (6/6). Lemma margins eciliate (2), or ciliate (5). Lemma apex dentate (6), or lobed (1); 2 -fid; incised 0.1-0.1667-0.25 of lemma length; awned; 1 -awned. Principal lemma awn from a sinus; geniculate. Column of lemma awn puberulous (1), or pubescent (2), or hirtellous (4). Palea absent or minute.
    Flowers
    Anthers 3 (1/1).
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp (1/1); fusiform (1/1).
    Distribution
    Africa, or North America (1), or South America (1).

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Benin, Botswana, Burkina, Burundi, Cameroon, Caprivi Strip, Central African Repu, Chad, Congo, Ethiopia, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Rwanda, Senegal, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Colombia, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Nicaragua

    Hyperthelia Clayton appears in other Kew resources:

    First published in Kew Bull. 20: 438 (1966 publ. 1967)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R.H.A. (2011). World checklist of selected plant families published update Facilitated by the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • in Kew Bull. 20: 438 (1966).
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • in Kew Bull. 20: 438 (1966).
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • in K.B. 20: 438 (1966)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0