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  1. Family: Euphorbiaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Euphorbia L.
      1. Euphorbia heterophylla L.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Central & S. U.S.A. to Tropical & Subtropical America.

    [FZ]

    Euphorbiaceae, S. Carter & L.C. Leach. Flora Zambesiaca 9:5. 2001

    Habit
    Annual herb erect to 1 m high, often tinged red; stem hollow; branches sparse, glabrous to sparsely pilose towards the apices.
    Leaves
    Leaves with a petiole to 2(4) cm long; stipules modified as fairly conspicuous purplish glands; lamina to 12 × 6 cm, ovate, obtuse at the apex, cuneate at the base, with minute distant gland-tipped teeth at the margin, occasionally more coarsely toothed, glabrous to sparsely pilose around the edges on the upper surface, pilose with septate hairs especially on the midrib and nerves on the lower surface, glabrescent.
    Inflorescences
    Cymes terminal and axillary, each forking c. 5 times, with rays progressively shorter from c. 15 cm to c. 2 mm long and cyathia densely clustered.
    Bracts
    Basal bracts similar to the leaves but paler green, progressively smaller, more lanceolate and sessile above.
    Cyathia
    Cyathia c. 3.5 × 2.5 mm with barrel-shaped involucres, glabrous; gland peltate, 1 mm long, funnel-shaped, the opening circular, 1.2 mm across, often red-rimmed; lobes c. 1.3 mm long, subcircular, deeply and sharply toothed with margins minutely ciliate.
    Male
    Male flowers: bracteoles few, ligulate, feathery; stamens 4 mm long.
    Flowers
    Female flower: ovary pedicellate, glabrous or occasionally with minute scattered hairs, the perianth forming an obvious rim; styles c. 1 mm long, occasionally minutely puberulous, bifid to halfway. Male flowers: bracteoles few, ligulate, feathery; stamens 4 mm long.
    Female
    Female flower: ovary pedicellate, glabrous or occasionally with minute scattered hairs, the perianth forming an obvious rim; styles c. 1 mm long, occasionally minutely puberulous, bifid to halfway.
    Fruits
    Capsule exserted on a reflexed pedicel to 6 mm long, c. 4.5 × 5.5 mm, deeply 3-lobed.
    Seeds
    Seeds 2.6 × 2.4 mm, conical with acute apex, bluntly verrucose, blackish-brown.
    [FWTA]

    Euphorbiaceae, Hutchinson and Dalziel. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:2. 1958

    Habit
    A rather lax erect annual weed, to 3 ft. high; locally abundant.
    Note
    In most specimens from our area the upper leaves and bracts are either entirely green, or with whitish blotches at the base, or tinged purplish on the petiole, nerves and margins; Deighton 4505 and Meikle 877 are specimens of the form with red or orange blotches which is sometimes cultivated.
    [FTEA]

    Euphorbiaceae, A. R.-Smith. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1987

    Habit
    Erect annual herb to 1 m. high, with branches glabrous to sparsely pilose towards the apices, often tinged red.
    Leaves
    Leaves ovate, to 12 × 6 cm., base cuneate, apex obtuse, margin with minute distant gland-tipped teeth, occasionally more coarsely toothed, upper surface glabrous to sparsely pilose around the edges, lower surface pilose with septate hairs especially on the midrib and nerves, glabrescent; petiole to 2(–4) cm. long; glandular stipules fairly large, purplish.
    Cyathia
    Cyathia densely clustered in axillary and terminal cymes forking ± 5 times, with progressively shorter rays from ± 15 cm. to ± 2 mm. long; basal bracts similar to the leaves but paler green, progressively smaller, more lanceolate and subsessile above. Cyathia glabrous, ± 3.5 × 2.5 mm., with goblet-shaped involucres; gland peltate, funnel-shaped, 1 mm. long, the opening circular, 1.2 mm. across, red-rimmed; lobes subcircular, ± 1.3 mm. long, deeply and sharply toothed with margins minutely ciliate.
    Flowers
    Male flowers:bracteoles few, ligulate, feathery; stamens 4 mm. long. Female flower:ovary pedicellate, glabrous or occasionally with minute scattered hairs, the perianth forming an obvious rim; styles ± 1 mm. long, occasionally minutely puberulous, bifid to halfway.
    Male
    Male flowers:bracteoles few, ligulate, feathery; stamens 4 mm. long.
    Female
    Female flower:ovary pedicellate, glabrous or occasionally with minute scattered hairs, the perianth forming an obvious rim; styles ± 1 mm. long, occasionally minutely puberulous, bifid to halfway.
    Fruits
    Capsule exserted on a reflexed pedicel to 6 mm. long, deeply 3-lobed, ± 4.5 × 5.5 mm.
    Seeds
    Seeds conical with acute apex, 2.6 × 2.4 mm., blackish brown, surface bluntly tuberculate.
    Habitat
    A weed of cultivation; 150–3000 m.
    Distribution
    K1 K3 K4 K5 K7 T1 T2 T3 T4 T6 T7 T8 U1 U2 throughout tropical Africa, a pantropical weed originating from Central America
    [CPLC]

    Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

    Distribution
    Nativa en Colombia; Alt. 80 - 2000 m.; Andes, Llanura del Caribe.
    Habit
    Hierba
    Conservation
    No Evaluada

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Alabama, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Arizona, Arkansas, Bahamas, Belize, Bermuda, Bolivia, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Cayman Is., Chile North, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Florida, French Guiana, Galápagos, Georgia, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Jamaica, Kansas, Kentucky, Leeward Is., Louisiana, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Nebraska, New Mexico, Nicaragua, North Carolina, Oklahoma, Panamá, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico, South Carolina, South Dakota, Suriname, Tennessee, Texas, Trinidad-Tobago, Turks-Caicos Is., Uruguay, Utah, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Virginia, Windward Is., Wisconsin

    Introduced into:

    Andaman Is., Assam, Bangladesh, Benin, Botswana, Brazil Northeast, Burkina, Burundi, California, Cameroon, Canary Is., Cape Verde, Central African Repu, Chad, Chagos Archipelago, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Christmas I., Cocos (Keeling) Is., Congo, Cook Is., Cyprus, Djibouti, East Aegean Is., East Himalaya, Ethiopia, Fiji, Free State, Gabon, Ghana, Gilbert Is., Greece, Guinea, Gulf of Guinea Is., Gulf States, Hainan, India, Ivory Coast, Kazan-retto, Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Line Is., Malawi, Maldives, Marianas, Maryland, Mexican Pacific Is., Mozambique, Nauru, New Caledonia, Nigeria, Niue, Norfolk Is., Ogasawara-shoto, Ohio, Palestine, Phoenix Is., Rwanda, Samoa, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Society Is., South China Sea, St.Helena, Sudan, Sulawesi, Taiwan, Thailand, Togo, Tokelau-Manihiki, Tonga, Tuamotu, West Himalaya, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Accepted Infraspecifics

    Synonyms

    Other Data

    Euphorbia heterophylla L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 1, 2008 Hinton, G.B. [2940], México State K000476561
    Jan 1, 2008 Hinton, G.B. [11576], Guerrero K000476568
    Jan 1, 2008 Pringle, C.G. [4552], Jalisco K000476567
    Apr 1, 2002 Etuge, M. [1703], Cameroon K000026641
    Jan 1, 1992 Sunderland, T.C.H. [1219], Cameroon K000011534
    Harley, R.M. [16887], Brazil K001210905
    Harley, R.M. [20524], Brazil K001210906
    Hinton, G.B. [12068], Michoacán K000476553
    Hinton, G.B. [13222], Michoacán K000476554
    Hinton, G.B. [13247], Michoacán K000476555
    Hinton, G.B. [13247], Michoacán K000476556
    Hinton, G.B. [13227], Michoacán K000476557
    Hinton, G.B. [5024], México State K000476559
    Hinton, G.B. [1995], México State K000476560
    Hinton, G.B. [1784], México State K000476562
    Hinton, G.B. [1995], México State K000476563
    Hinton, G.B. [4673], México State K000476564
    Hinton, G.B. [4667], México State K000476565
    Hinton, G.B. [6636], Guerrero K000476566
    Hinton, G.B. [5186], México State K000476558
    Ratter, J.A. [3231], Brazil K001210908
    Mori, S.A. [11728], Brazil K001210915
    Spruce, R. [6055], Ecuador K000201876
    Irwin, H.S. [15700], Brazil K001210909
    Irwin, H.S. [12041], Brazil K001210910
    Irwin, H.S. [12232], Brazil K001210911
    Irwin, H.S. [9147], Brazil K001210912
    Irwin, H.S. [8119], Brazil K001210913
    Ule, E. [8206], Brazil K001210903
    Maas, P.J.M. [417], Brazil K001210907
    Folli, D.A. [3322], Brazil K001210901
    Smith, L.B. [11169], Brazil K001210902
    Mexia, Y. [8823], Mexico K000478150
    Gaumer, G.F. [136], Mexico K000478148
    Hoehne, W. [14969], Brazil K001210904
    Nelson, E.W. [4079], Mexico K000478149
    Mildbraed, G. W. J. [10785], Cameroon K000180550
    Maia [s.n.], Brazil K001210914

    Bibliography

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 453 (1753)

    Accepted by

    • Balkrishna, A. (2018). Flora of Morni Hills (Research & Possibilities): 1-581. Divya Yoga Mandir Trust.
    • Vladimirov, V., Aybeke, N. & Kit Tan (eds.) (2017). New floristic records in the Balkans: 32 Phytologia Balcanica 23: 119-146.
    • Retief, E. & Meyer, N.L. (2017). Plants of the Free State inventory and identification guide Strelitzia 38: 1-1236. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • da Silva, O.L.M., Cordeiro, I. & Caruzo, M.B.R. (2014). Synopsis of Euphorbia (Euphorbiaceae) in the state of São Paulo, Brazil Phytotaxa 181: 193-215.
    • Brundu, G. & Camarda, I. (2013). The Flora of Chad: a checklist and brief analysis PhytoKeys 23: 1-18.
    • Girmansyah, D. & al. (eds.) (2013). Flora of Bali an annotated checklist: 1-158. Herbarium Bogorensis, Indonesia.
    • Allred, K.W. (2012). Flora Neomexicana, ed. 2, 1: 1-599. Range Science Herbarium, Las Cruces, New Mexico.
    • Yang, Y., Riina, R., Morawetz, J.J., Haevermans, T., Aubriot, X. & Berry, P.E. (2012). Molecular phylogenetics and classification of Euphorbia subgenus Chamaesyce (Euphorbiaceae) Taxon 61: 764-789.
    • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
    • Figueiredo, E., Paiva, J., Stévart, T., Oliveira, F. & Smith, G.F. (2011). Annotated catalogue of the flowering plants of São Tomé and Príncipe Bothalia 41: 41-82.
    • Reddy, G.V.P. (2011). Survey of invasive plants on Guam and identification of the 20 most widespread Micronesica; Journal of the College of Guam 41: 263-274.
    • Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., Ortiz, R.D.C., Callejas Posada, R. & Merello, M. (eds.) (2011). Flora de Antioquia: Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares 2: 1-939. Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín.
    • Lejoy, J., Ndjele, M.-B. & Geerinck, D. (2010). Catalogue-flore des plantes vasculaires des districts de Kisangani et de la Tshopo (RD Congo) Taxonomania. Revue de Taxonomie et de Nomenclature Botaniques 30: 1-307.
    • Binojkumar, M.S. & Balakrishnan, N.P. (2010). The genus Euphorbia L. (Euphorbiaceae) in India. A taxonomic revision: 1-430. Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehra Dun.
    • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • Balakrishnan, N.P. & Chakrabarty, T. (2007). The family Euphorbiaceae in India. A synopsis of its profile, taxonomy and bibliography: 1-500. Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehra Dun.
    • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Chayamarit, K. & Van Welzen, P.C. (2005). Euphorbiaceae (Genera A-F) Flora of Thailand 8(1): 1-303. The Forest Herbarium, National Park, Wildlife and Plant Conservation Department, Bangkok.
    • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
    • Christenhusz, M.J.M. (2002). Notes on Euphorbia and Pedilanthus (Euphorbiaceae) in the Guianas Harvard Papers in Botany 7: 1-6.
    • Stevens, W.D., Ulloa U., C., Pool, A. & Montiel, O.M. (2001). Flora de Nicaragua Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 85: i-xlii, 1-2666.
    • Govaerts, R., Frodin, D.G. & Radcliffe-Smith, A. (2000). World Checklist and Bibliography of Euphorbiaceae (and Pandaceae) 1-4: 1-1622. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Sheppard, C.R.C. & Seaward, M.R.D. (eds.) (1999). Ecology of the Chagos archipelago: 1-350. Westbury Academic & Scientific Publishing, Otley.
    • Edwards, S., Tadesse, M. & Hedberg, I. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 2(2): 1-456. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Thaman, R.R., Fosberg, F.R., Manner, H.I. & Hassall, D.C. (1994). The Flora of Nauru Atoll Research Bulletin 392: 1-223.
    • George, A.S., Orchard, A.E. & Hewson, H.J. (eds.) (1993). Oceanic islands 2 Flora of Australia 50: 1-606. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • Kobayashi, S. & Ono, M. (1987). A Revised List of Vascular Plants Indigenous and Introduced to the Bonin (Ogasawara) and the Volcano (Kazan) Islands Ogasawara Research 13: 1-55.
    • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa

    • Berhaut Fl. Sen. 196.
    • Sp. Pl. 1: 453 (1753)

    Kew Backbone Distributions

    • Vladimirov, V., Aybeke, N. & Kit Tan (eds.) (2017). New floristic records in the Balkans: 32 Phytologia Balcanica 23: 119-146.
    • Retief, E. & Meyer, N.L. (2017). Plants of the Free State inventory and identification guide Strelitzia 38: 1-1236. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2016). Flora of North America North of Mexico 12: 1-603. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Sykes, W.R. (2016). Flora of the Cook Islands: 1-973. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Hawaii.
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Mohlenbrock, R.H. (2014). Vascular Flora of Illinois. A Field Guide, ed. 4: 1-536. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.
    • Brundu, G. & Camarda, I. (2013). The Flora of Chad: a checklist and brief analysis PhytoKeys 23: 1-18.
    • Girmansyah, D. & al. (eds.) (2013). Flora of Bali an annotated checklist: 1-158. Herbarium Bogorensis, Indonesia.
    • Hassler, M. (2012). Flora of Rhodes. Systematic list of flora of Rhodes http://www.rz.uni-karlsruhe.de/~db111/flora/rhodos/list.php.
    • Lambdon, P. (2012). Flowering plants & ferns of St Helena: 1-624. Pisces publications for St Helena nature conservation group.
    • Figueiredo, E., Paiva, J., Stévart, T., Oliveira, F. & Smith, G.F. (2011). Annotated catalogue of the flowering plants of São Tomé and Príncipe Bothalia 41: 41-82.
    • Reddy, G.V.P. (2011). Survey of invasive plants on Guam and identification of the 20 most widespread Micronesica; Journal of the College of Guam 41: 263-274.
    • Lejoy, J., Ndjele, M.-B. & Geerinck, D. (2010). Catalogue-flore des plantes vasculaires des districts de Kisangani et de la Tshopo (RD Congo) Taxonomania. Revue de Taxonomie et de Nomenclature Botaniques 30: 1-307.
    • Binojkumar, M.S. & Balakrishnan, N.P. (2010). The genus Euphorbia L. (Euphorbiaceae) in India. A taxonomic revision: 1-430. Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehra Dun.
    • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
    • Wu, Z.Y., Raven, P.H. & Hong, D.Y. (eds.) (2008). Flora of China 11: 1-622. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Suzuki, M., Taufatofua, P. & Koyama, T. (2007). New records of plants from Tonga Makinoa, n.s., 6: 25-62.
    • Balakrishnan, N.P. & Chakrabarty, T. (2007). The family Euphorbiaceae in India. A synopsis of its profile, taxonomy and bibliography: 1-500. Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehra Dun.
    • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Chayamarit, K. & Van Welzen, P.C. (2005). Euphorbiaceae (Genera A-F) Flora of Thailand 8(1): 1-303. The Forest Herbarium, National Park, Wildlife and Plant Conservation Department, Bangkok.
    • de Lange, P.J., Gardner, R.O., Sykes, W.R., Crowcroft, G.M., Cameron, E.K., Stalker, F., Christian, M.L. & Braggins, J.E. (2005). Vascular flora of Norfolk Island: some additions and taxonomic notes New Zealand Journal of Botany 43: 563-596.
    • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
    • Turner, I.M., Xing, F. & Corlett, R.T. (2000). An annotated check-list of the vascular plants of the South China Sea and its shores The Raffles bulletin of Zoology, Suppl. 8: 23-116.
    • Sheppard, C.R.C. & Seaward, M.R.D. (eds.) (1999). Ecology of the Chagos archipelago: 1-350. Westbury Academic & Scientific Publishing, Otley.
    • Florence, J. (1997). Flore de la Polynésie Française 1: 1-393. ORSTOM éditions, Paris.
    • Edwards, S., Tadesse, M. & Hedberg, I. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 2(2): 1-456. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Thaman, R.R., Fosberg, F.R., Manner, H.I. & Hassall, D.C. (1994). The Flora of Nauru Atoll Research Bulletin 392: 1-223.
    • Audru, J., Cesar, J. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1994). Les Plantes Vasculaires de la République de Djibouti. Flore Illustrée 1: 1-336. CIRAD, Départerment d'Elevage et de Médecine vétérinaire, Djibouti.
    • George, A.S., Orchard, A.E. & Hewson, H.J. (eds.) (1993). Oceanic islands 2 Flora of Australia 50: 1-606. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • Lebrun, J.P., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Levin, G.A. & Moran, R. (1989). The vascular flora of isla Socorro, Mexico: 1-71. Dept. of Botany, San Diego Natural History Museum, San Diego.
    • Fosberg, F.R. & Sachet, M.-H. (1987). Flora of the Gilbert Island, Kiribati, Checklist Atoll Research Bulletin 295: 1-33.
    • Kobayashi, S. & Ono, M. (1987). A Revised List of Vascular Plants Indigenous and Introduced to the Bonin (Ogasawara) and the Volcano (Kazan) Islands Ogasawara Research 13: 1-55.
    • Wester, L. (1985). Checklist of the vasular plants of the Northern Line Islands Atoll Research Bulletin 287: 1-38.
    • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.
    • Correll, D.S. & Correll, H.B. (1982). Flora of the Bahama Archipelago: 1-1692. J.Cramer, Vaduz.
    • Smith, A.C. (1981). Flora Vitiensis Nova. A new flora for Fiji (Spermatophytes only) 2: 1-810. Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai.
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    • Sykes, W.R. (1970). Contributions to the flora of Niue Bulletin, New Zealand Department of Scientific and Industrial Research 200: 1-321.

    Flora of Tropical East Africa

    • Keay, Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 1: 421 (1958).
    • F. W. Andr., The Flowering Plants of the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan 2: 76 (1952).
    • L., Sp. Pl.: 453 (1753).

    Sources

    Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Science Photographs
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Neotropikey
    Milliken, W., Klitgard, B. and Baracat, A. (2009 onwards), Neotropikey - Interactive key and information resources for flowering plants of the Neotropics.
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0