1. Family: Cyperaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Cyperus L.
      1. Cyperus esculentus L.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & Subtropical to N. America.

    [FWTA]

    Cyperaceae, Miss S. S. Hooper. Flora of West Tropical Africa 3:2. 1972

    Diagnostic
    Generally distinguished from the other slenderly rhizomatous, tuber-bearing species by its golden, rather blunt spikelets, 1–2 cm. long and nerved sides to the glumes
    Ecology
    Weed in cultivated and waste places.
    [FTEA]

    Cyperaceae, K Hoenselaar, B. Verdcourt & H. Beentje. Hypolytrum, D Simpson. Fuirena, M Muasya. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2010

    Type
    Type: “Habitat Monspelii, inque Italia, Oriente”, lectotype: “Cyperus rotundus esculentus angustifolius” in Bauhin, Theatri Bot., 221, 222, 1658, chosen by Simpson in Jarvis & al. (ed.), Regnum Veg. 127: 41 (1993)
    Habit
    Perennial, stoloniferous, up to 1 m high.
    Stolons
    Stolons to ± 15 cm long, 0.5–1.5 cm thick, covered with brown scales and ending in a blackish tuber 3–8 mm in diameter.
    Culms
    Culms 18.5–74 cm long, 1.6–3.5 mm wide, trigonous to triquetrous, glabrous
    Leaves
    Leaf sheath pale brownish-green to green, 2–9 cm long. Leaf blade linear, flat, 11.5–29 cm long, 2.3–8 mm wide, with 2 main veins next to primary vein, apex acuminate, glabrous to minutely scabrid on margins and veins Leaves up to 38 cm long, crowded near the base.
    Bracts
    Involucral bracts 2–6. Leaf-like, spreading, the lowermost 4–16.5 cm long, 2.1–8 mm wide
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence simple or compound, primary branches 5–10, 1–18 cm long.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets in loose clusters on elongated axis, sessile and at the end of primary and secondary branches, 9–20 per cluster, linear-lanceolate, 5.5–16 mm long, 1.2–2.5 mm wide, the apex of the spikelet obtuse.
    Glume
    Glumes yellowish-brown to reddish-brown, elliptic-ovate to obovate, with 3–4 distinct veins on each side of the keel, glabrous, 2.4–3.5 mm long, 1.4–2 mm wide, keel green to reddish-brown, apex obtuse
    Stamens
    Stamens 3.
    Filaments
    Filaments 2.5–4 mm long.
    Anthers
    Anthers 1–2 mm long
    Fruits
    Nutlet shiny grey, ellipsoid, trigonous, 1.3–1.5 mm long, 0.6–0.7 mm wide, surface with minute isodiametric cells
    Figures
    Fig. 35, p228
    Ecology
    Swamps and seasonally wet grasslands, weed of shambas and gardens; 0–2100 m
    Conservation
    Least Concern (LC) due to its wide distribution and common habitat.
    Distribution
    Range: Widespread in Africa; S Europe Flora districts: U2 U3 U4 K3 K4 K7 T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T7 T8

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Afghanistan, Alabama, Albania, Algeria, Angola, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Arizona, Arkansas, Aruba, Azores, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Belize, Benin, Bermuda, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, British Columbia, Bulgaria, Burkina, Burundi, Cabinda, California, Cameroon, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Caprivi Strip, Central African Repu, Central American Pac, Chad, Colombia, Colorado, Comoros, Congo, Connecticut, Corse, Costa Rica, Cuba, Delaware, District of Columbia, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Florida, France, Free State, Gabon, Galápagos, Gambia, Georgia, Ghana, Greece, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Honduras, Idaho, Illinois, India, Indiana, Iowa, Iran, Iraq, Italy, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Kansas, Kentucky, Kenya, Kriti, KwaZulu-Natal, Leeward Is., Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Louisiana, Madagascar, Madeira, Maine, Mali, Maryland, Masachusettes, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Namibia, Nebraska, Nepal, Netherlands Antilles, Nevada, New Brunswick, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, North Carolina, North Caucasus, North Dakota, Northern Provinces, Ohio, Oklahoma, Ontario, Oregon, Pakistan, Panamá, Paraguay, Pennsylvania, Peru, Portugal, Puerto Rico, Québec, Rhode I., Rwanda, Senegal, Sicilia, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Carolina, South Dakota, Spain, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Tennessee, Texas, Togo, Transcaucasus, Trinidad-Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda, Uruguay, Utah, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, West Himalaya, West Virginia, Windward Is., Wisconsin, Yemen, Zaïre

    Introduced into:

    Austria, Belgium, Cambodia, China North-Central, Germany, Hawaii, Jawa, New Guinea, New South Wales, St.Helena, Taiwan, Tristan da Cunha, Ukraine, Vietnam

    Common Names

    English
    Earth almond, Ground almond, Nut grass, Water grass, Yellow nut sedge

    Cyperus esculentus L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jun 5, 1930 South Africa K000362732
    Mar 1, 1892 Rehmann, A. [4776], South Africa K000362730 syntype
    Mar 1, 1892 Wood, J. M. [1581], South Africa K000362731
    Mar 1, 1892 Baines, T. [s.n.], Botswana K000362729
    Mar 1, 1892 Kraup [97], South Africa K000362728
    Feb 1, 1892 Buchanan, J. [23], Zambia K000362653
    Jan 1, 1892 Gay, J. [s.n.], Italy K000309422
    Jaeger, P. [32], Mali K000391871
    Jaeger, P. [38], Mali K000391872
    Jaeger, P. [42], Mali K000391873
    Chevalier, A. [950], Mali K000391874
    Bidgood, S. [5127], Tanzania K000190355
    Bidgood, S. [5182], Tanzania K000190410
    Bidgood, S. [5277], Tanzania K000190507
    Spruce, R. [6414], Ecuador K000632122
    Gay, J. [s.n.], Italy K000309423
    Waterlot [1203], Mali K000391875
    Wailly, M. de [5122], Mali K000391870
    Oct 1, 1994 Drummond, J. [452], USA Cyperus esculentus var. macrostachyus K000307937 Unknown type material

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 45 (1753)

    Accepted by

    • Vladimirov, V. & al. (2016). New floristic records in the Balkans: 29 Phytologia Balcanica 22: 93-123.
    • de Moura Júnior, E.G. & al. (2015). Updated checklist of aquatic macrophytes from Northern Brazil Acta Amazonica 45: 111-132.
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Velayos, M., Aedo, C., Cabezas, F., de la Estrella, M., Barberá, P. & Fero, M. (eds.) (2014). Flora de Guinea Ecuatorial 11: 1-416. Consejo superior de investigaciones científicas, Real jardín botánico, Madrid.
    • de Oliveira Ribeiro, A.R. & al. (2014). Cyperaceae do rio Apodi-Mossoró, estado do Rio Grande do Norte, Brasil Hoehnea 41: 149-171.
    • Larson, J., Reif, B., Nelson, B.E. & Hartman, R.L. (2014). Floristic studies in North Central New Mexico, U.S.A. the Sange de Cristo mountains Journal of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas 8: 271-303.
    • Lye, K.A. & Thery, P. (2012). Flore du Gabon 44: 1-230. Muséum National D'Histoire Naturelle, Paris.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., Ortiz, R.D.C., Callejas Posada, R. & Merello, M. (eds.) (2011). Flora de Antioquia: Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares 2: 1-939. Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2010). Flora of China 23: 1-515. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Hoenselaar, K., Verdcourt, B. & Beentje, H. (2010). Cyperaceae Flora of Tropical East Africa: 1-466.
    • Gremmen, N. & Halbertsma, R.L. (2009). Alien plants and their impact on Tristan da Cunha 2: 1-307. Overseas Territories Environment Programme (OTEP).
    • Rothrock, P.E. (2009). Sedges of Indiana and adjacent states: the non-Carex species: 1-271. Indiana Academy of Sciences.
    • Castroviejo, S. & al. (eds.) (2008). Flora Iberica 18: 1-420. Real Jardín Botánico, CSIC, Madrid.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • Govaerts, R. & Simpson, D.A. (2007). World Checklist of Cyperaceae. Sedges: 1-765. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) (2006). Conspectus Florae Caucasi 2: 1-466. Editio Universitatis Petropolitanae.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2005). Monocotyledons and Gymnosperms of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 52: 1-415.
    • Boulos, L. (2005). Flora of Egypt 4: 1-617. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
    • Cabezas, F., Aedo, C. & Velayos, M. (2004). Checklist of the Cyperaceae of Equatorial Guinea (Annobón, Bioko, Río Muni) Belgian Journal of Botany 137: 3-26.
    • Lambion, J., Delvosalle, L. & Duvigneaud, J. (2004). Nouvelle flore de la Belgique du G. D. de Luxembourg, du Nord de la France et des régions voisines, ed. 5: 1-1167. Edition du Patrimoine du Jardin botanique national de Belgique.
    • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.
    • Edwards, S., Demissew, S., & Hedberg, I. (eds.) (1997). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 6: i-xxviii, 1-586. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Espejo Serna, A. & López-Ferrari, A.R. (1997). Las Monocotiledóneas Mexicanas una Sinopsis Florística 5: 1-98. Consejo Nacional de la Flora de México, México D.F.
    • Audru, J., Cesar, J. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1993). Les Plantes Vasculaires de la République de Djibouti. Flore Illustrée 2(2): 433-968. CIRAD, Départerment d'Elevage et de Médecine vétérinaire, Djibouti.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • Berhaut, Fl. Sén. ed. 2, 385 (1967).
    • Cherm. in Arch. Bot. Caen 7, Mém. 4: 13 (1936)
    • Kük. in Engl., Pflanzenr. Cyper. 116 (1936)
    • F.T.A. 8: 355
    • Sp. Pl. 45 (1753)
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Fleischmann, A. (2016). Floristische Kurzmitteilungen Berichte der Bayerischen Botanischen Gesellschaft zur Erforschung der Heimischen Flora 86: 277-294.
    • de Moura Júnior, E.G. & al. (2015). Updated checklist of aquatic macrophytes from Northern Brazil Acta Amazonica 45: 111-132.
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • de Oliveira Ribeiro, A.R. & al. (2014). Cyperaceae do rio Apodi-Mossoró, estado do Rio Grande do Norte, Brasil Hoehnea 41: 149-171.
    • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Stöhr, O. & al. (2012). Beiträge zur Flora von Österreich, IV Stapfia 97: 53-136.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2010). Flora of China 23: 1-515. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Gremmen, N. & Halbertsma, R.L. (2009). Alien plants and their impact on Tristan da Cunha 2: 1-307. Overseas Territories Environment Programme (OTEP).
    • Castroviejo, S. & al. (eds.) (2008). Flora Iberica 18: 1-420. Real Jardín Botánico, CSIC, Madrid.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) (2006). Conspectus Florae Caucasi 2: 1-466. Editio Universitatis Petropolitanae.
    • Lambion, J., Delvosalle, L. & Duvigneaud, J. (2004). Nouvelle flore de la Belgique du G. D. de Luxembourg, du Nord de la France et des régions voisines, ed. 5: 1-1167. Edition du Patrimoine du Jardin botanique national de Belgique.
    • Hammel, B.E. & al. (2003). Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica 2: 1-694. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Dy Phon, P. (2000). Dictionnaire des plantes utilisées au Cambodge: 1-915. Chez l'auteur, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.
    • Espejo Serna, A. & López-Ferrari, A.R. (1997). Las Monocotiledóneas Mexicanas una Sinopsis Florística 5: 1-98. Consejo Nacional de la Flora de México, México D.F.
    • Audru, J., Cesar, J. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1993). Les Plantes Vasculaires de la République de Djibouti. Flore Illustrée 2(2): 433-968. CIRAD, Départerment d'Elevage et de Médecine vétérinaire, Djibouti.
    • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Fl. Eth. 6: 451 (1997).
    • Fl. Somalia 4: 122 (1995)
    • Haines & Lye, Sedges & Rushes E. Afr.: 190, figs. 372, 373 (1983)
    • E.P. 4, 20 (101): 116 (1936)
    • F.T.A. 8: 355 (1902)
    • Sp. Pl.: 45 (1753)

    Sources

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Plants and People Africa
    Common Names from Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com/
    © Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/