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This genus is accepted, and its native range is Macaronesia to W. Himalaya and Ethiopia, E. Central Europe to Mongolia.
Ferula bungeana

[FTEA]

Umbelliferae, C.C. Townsend. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1989

Morphology General Habit
Perennial herbs, frequently very large, glabrous to ± pubescent
Morphology Leaves
Leaves pinnately decomposite with broad to filiform segments; sheaths usually large, soft to rigid, amplexicaul and cup-like
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Umbels numerous, compound, sessile or pedunculate; involucre absent; involucel absent or present
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers polygamous, the lower umbels frequently solitary and unisexual, the upper paniculate-corymbose in groups of a central generally sessile or shortly pedunculate larger hermaphrodite umbel subtended by 2–4 lateral ♂ umbels
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx-teeth small and shrivelling to obsolete
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals creamy to bright yellow or greenish, broad, acute to acuminate at the incurved to inflexed tip
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit very strongly dorsally compressed, with expanded marginal ribs and 3 narrow but frequently sharply prominent dorsal primary ribs; vittae solitary in the valleculae and 2 on the commissure to very numerous all round the pericarp and sometimes extending into the lateral ribs; stylopodia shortly conical from the centre of a broad, usually undulate-margined disk; carpophore deeply bifid
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Endosperm very flattened, pentagonal to subterete, somewhat concave on the commissural face.

[FIQ]

Ghazanfar, S. A. & Edmondson, J. R (Eds). (2014) Flora of Iraq, Volume 5 Part 2: Lythraceae to Campanulaceae.

Morphology General Habit
Perennial herbs, the leaves pinnately decomposite into filiform segments to variously pinnate with segments broad and dentate; sheaths usually large, rigid to flaccid
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Umbels compound, polygamous, terminal large, hermaphrodite, usually with two or more long pedunculate smaller umbels with male and hermaphrodite or only male flowers arising immediately below it Inflorescence paniculate
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Involucre
Involucre and involucel absent or of a few bracts which are often small and caducous and not to be found at fruiting stage
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers yellow, petals oblong or obovate, entire or subentire above with a short inflexed acumen, glabrous or rarely hairy
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx teeth small or obsolete
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit roundish, oblong or ovoid, dorsally plano-compressed; the three intermediate ribs filiform, scarcely prominent, laterals conspicuously winged and those of each mericarp contiguous, forming a wing to the fruit
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits Vittae
Vittae superficial, solitary or 3 or 4 in the valleculae, or more numerous and very slender
Disc
Disk broad, explanate, margin ± crenulate
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Stylopodium
Stylopodia small, depressed or somewhat conical-Carpophore bipartite
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds Endosperm
Endosperm dorsally flattened, commissural face slightly concave.
Distribution
Probably some 150 species in temperate Eurasia and the mountains of tropical Africa; six species in Iraq.
Note
Ferula (from the Lat. ferula, a rod or cane, used to chastise boys in schools and in former times slaves for minor offences); Giant Fennel (not to be confused with Fennel, Foeniculum, q.v.). Asafoetida, the gum resin exuded from the living rhizomes of F. asa-foetida (not found in Iraq) is obtained in Iran and W Afghanistan and produces the medicinal oil, oleum Asae Foetidae which is used, according to Wren (1956) as stimulant, antispasmodic and expectorant: also in infantile convulsions and colic. Another use is as a flavourant of sauces. One or two species which occur in mountain regions are much prized, collected and dried for winter animal fodder.

[FSOM]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Morphology General Habit
Perennial herbs
Morphology Leaves
Leaves pinnately divided, with large sheaths
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Umbels compound; bracts absent; bracteoles absent or present Plant polygamous
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx-lobes small or obsolete
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals cream to yellow or greenish, with an acute to acuminate incurved tip
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruits strongly dorsally compressed, with expanded marginal ribs and 3 dorsal primary ribs; vittae 1 in each groove and 2 on each commissural face to very numerous; stylopodia shortly conical.
Distribution
Some 200 species in Europe, Asia and Australia, particularly well represented in the Middle East.

[FIQ]

Ghazanfar, S. A. & Edmondson, J. R (Eds). (2014) Flora of Iraq, Volume 5 Part 2: Lythraceae to Campanulaceae.

Morphology Branches
Branches and peduncles becoming spongy-incrassate at fruiting stage; vittae in valleculae numerous, filiform, sometimes interrupted; mericarps broad, much flattened, with ± broad margins.

Native to:

Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Altay, Baleares, Bulgaria, Canary Is., Central European Rus, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Corse, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Djibouti, East Aegean Is., East Himalaya, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, France, Greece, Hungary, Inner Mongolia, Iran, Iraq, Italy, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kirgizstan, Kriti, Krym, Lebanon-Syria, Libya, Manchuria, Mongolia, Morocco, North Caucasus, Pakistan, Pakistan, Palestine, Portugal, Romania, Sardegna, Saudi Arabia, Sicilia, Sinai, Somalia, South European Russi, Spain, Sudan, Tadzhikistan, Tanzania, Tibet, Transcaucasus, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, West Himalaya, West Siberia, Xinjiang, Yemen, Yugoslavia

Introduced into:

Bangladesh, Laos

Ferula Tourn. ex L. appears in other Kew resources:

First published in Sp. Pl.: 246 (1753)

Accepted by

  • Govaerts, R. (2001). World Checklist of Seed Plants Database in ACCESS E-F: 1-50919.

Literature

Flora of Iraq

  • Linnaeus, Gen. Pl. ed. 5: 117 (1754)
  • Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. ed. 1: 246 (1753);

Flora of Somalia

  • Flora Somalia, Vol 2, (1999) Author: by M. Thulin [updated by M. Thulin 2008]

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • L., Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 117 (1754)
  • Sp. Pl.: 246 (1753)

Flora of Iraq
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Somalia
Flora of Somalia
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0