1. Family: Arecaceae Bercht. & J.Presl
    1. Heterospathe Scheff.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Philippines to W. Pacific.

    [PW]
    Vernacular
    Sagisi palm.
    Distribution
    About 40 species from the Philippines and Micronesia to eastern Indonesia and to the Solomon Islands, Fiji and Vanuatu, including 16 species in New Guinea.
    General Description
    Dwarf to moderate, solitary or sometimes clustered, unarmed, pleonanthic monoecious palms. Stem creeping or erect, sometimes basally expanded, grey-green to brown, leaf scars prominent. Leaves pinnate, rarely entire bifid, erect, becoming spreading, often reddish when young; sheath splitting abaxially and not forming a well-defined crownshaft, margins fibrous, acute, glaucous or not; petiole short to elongate, usually deeply channelled adaxially, rounded abaxially, variously indumentose; rachis straight or curved, basally channelled adaxially, distally ridged, rounded abaxially, variously indumentose; leaflets, when present, single-fold, acute to acuminate, prominent, midrib elevated, marginal ribs often thickened, veins adaxially ± waxy or glabrous, abaxially tomentose or brown-dotted, with or without basifixed ramenta on midrib. Inflorescences interfoliar or infrafoliar at anthesis, branched to 1–4 orders basally, fewer distally, often with reddish-brown, deciduous tomentum; peduncle prominent, elongate, elliptic in cross-section; prophyll persistent, attached near the base and completely encircling the peduncle, tubular, 2-keeled laterally, more-or-less dorsiventrally flattened, splitting abaxially, and apically; peduncular bract 1 or rarely 2 (Heterospathe trispatha), attached below or sometimes above the middle of the peduncle, terete, beaked, enclosing the inflorescence in bud, greatly exceeding the prophyll, splitting abaxially and caducous or marcescent as the inflorescence matures; rachis short to elongate, bearing spirally arranged, short, pointed bracts subtending a few simple rachillae, or several branches with basal bare portions; rachillae slender, bearing sessile or slightly depressed, spirally arranged triads subtended by spreading lip-like bracts throughout the rachillae, or with paired or solitary staminate flowers toward the apex of the rachillae; bracteoles of the staminate flowers small, bracteoles surrounding the pistillate flower 2, spreading to cupular and imbricate. Staminate flowers symmetrical or slightly to markedly asymmetrical; sepals 3, distinct, broadly imbricate and rounded, ± keeled dorsally and gibbous basally; petals 3, distinct, valvate, usually about twice as long as the sepals, prominently lined when dry, ± acute, one usually somewhat larger than the others; stamens 6–36 or more, distinct, the filaments awl-shaped and strongly inflexed at the apex, anthers oblong in outline, dorsifixed and versatile at anthesis, latrorse; pistillode either small and conical, or columnar, prominent, nearly as long as the stamens, sometimes with an expanded apex. Pollen ellipsoidal asymmetric, occasionally oblate triangular; aperture a distal sulcus, infrequently a trichotomosulcus; ectexine tectate, perforate, perforate and micro-channelled or finely perforate-rugulate, aperture margin similar or slightly finer; infratectum columellate; longest axis ranging from 26–54 µm [12/32]. Pistillate flowers symmetrical, ± same size as the staminate; sepals 3, distinct, broadly imbricate, rounded; petals 3, distinct, broadly imbricate with briefly valvate apices; staminodes 3, tooth-like; gynoecium unilocular, uniovulate, short, soft, expanded upward into a thick stylar region below 3 recurved, short stigmas, the ovule lateral at top of locule, pendulous, hemianatropous. Fruit globose to ellipsoidal, small to large, orange to red when mature, stigmatic remains apical, eccentrically apical or subapical to lateral; epicarp smooth but drying granular or with irregular lines over short sclerosomes in the thinly to thickly fleshy mesocarp, with flattened anastomosing fibres, endocarp thin, operculate, smooth, shining within, or with thickened adnate fibres, irregularly sculptured, ridged and grooved, beaked at the apex, with a mass of slender fibres within a framework of thickened fibres at the base. Seed not adherent to endocarp, globose to ellipsoidal or with angled and with 3 rounded ridges laterally and abaxially, attached apically and laterally by the elongate hilum extending nearly the length of the seed, raphe branches simple to anastomosing, endosperm ruminate or rarely homogeneous (H. longipes and H. uniformis); embryo basal. Germination adjacent-ligular; eophyll bifid where known. Cytology: 2n = 32.
    Morphology
    Leaf (Heterospathe elata; Tomlinson 1961), root (Seubert 1998a, 1998b) and fruit (Essig et al. 1999).
    Diagnostic
    Very variable small to moderate, solitary or clustered pinnate-leaved palms of the Philippines, the Moluccas, New Guniea and western Pacific Islands; lacking a conspicuous crownshaft, and fruit with lateral to apical stigmatic remains.
    Biology
    Inhabitants of lowland and montane rain forest. Many species are undergrowth palms; a few contribute to the forest canopy.
    [PW]
    Use
    Fruit of Heterospathe elata is chewed as a betel substitute in the Philippines; the cabbage is said to be edible and the split petioles and leaflets are used in weaving.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Bismarck Archipelago, Caroline Is., Fiji, Maluku, Marianas, New Guinea, Philippines, Solomon Is., Vanuatu

    Introduced into:

    Society Is.

    Heterospathe Scheff. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 3, 2003 Bloembergen, S. [4784], Indonesia K000030797
    Dec 20, 2002 Barfod, A. [453], Papua New Guinea K000114324
    Nov 20, 2001 Burley, J.S. [4653], Indonesia K000114087
    Dec 14, 2000 Baker, W.J. [1142], Papua New Guinea 64185.000
    Dec 14, 2000 Baker, W.J. [1142], Papua New Guinea K000114205
    Dec 12, 2000 Baker, W.J. [1130], Papua New Guinea K000114197
    Dec 12, 2000 Baker, W.J. [1134], Papua New Guinea K000114198
    Dec 6, 2000 Banka, R. [2008], Papua New Guinea 64180.000
    Dec 6, 2000 Banka, R. [2008], Papua New Guinea K000114209
    Nov 27, 2000 Baker, W.J. [1118], Papua New Guinea 70024.000
    Nov 27, 2000 Baker, W.J. [1118], Papua New Guinea K000114194
    Nov 26, 2000 Baker, W.J. [1115], Papua New Guinea 70011.000
    Nov 26, 2000 Baker, W.J. [1115], Papua New Guinea K000114191
    Jun 28, 1995 Zona, S. [662], Solomon Is. K000030037
    Nov 22, 1982 Giulianetti, A. [s.n.], Papua New Guinea K000462437
    Jan 1, 1982 Giulianetti, A. [s.n.], Papua New Guinea K000462438
    Mar 7, 1980 Waterhouse, J.H.L. [69], Solomon Is. K000030036
    Mar 7, 1980 Waterhouse, J.H.L. [69], Solomon Is. K000208903
    Mar 7, 1980 Waterhouse, J.H.L. [69], Solomon Is. K000208904
    Mar 7, 1980 Waterhouse, J.H.L. [69], Solomon Is. K000208905
    Jan 1, 1979 Coode, M. [NGF40419], Papua New Guinea K000113836
    Jan 1, 1979 Millar, A.N. [NGF38490], Papua New Guinea K000113835
    Mar 10, 1978 Whitmore, T. [BSIP18108], Solomon Is. K000030035
    Jan 1, 1975 Beers, W. [BSIP6728], Solomon Is. K000030045
    Jan 1, 1975 Beers, W. [BSIP6728], Solomon Is. K000208911
    Jan 1, 1975 Beers, W. [BSIP6728], Solomon Is. K000208912
    Nov 15, 1972 Brass, L.J. [25734], Papua New Guinea K000113837
    Jan 1, 1965 Lipaqeto [BSIP3504], Solomon Is. K000030046
    Jan 1, 1965 Lipaqeto [BSIP3504], Solomon Is. K000208913
    Jan 1, 1964 Whitmore, T. [BSIP2488], Solomon Is. K000030048
    Jan 1, 1964 Whitmore, T. [BSIP1891], Solomon Is. K000030049
    Jan 1, 1964 Whitmore, T. [BSIP2488], Solomon Is. K000208907
    Jan 1, 1964 Whitmore, T. [BSIP1891], Solomon Is. K000208908
    Jan 1, 1964 Whitmore, T. [BSIP1891], Solomon Is. K000208909
    Sep 1, 1956 Carr, C.E. [13944], Papua New Guinea K000113700
    Sep 1, 1956 Carr, C.E. [15384], Papua New Guinea K000113699
    Heatubun, C. [274], Indonesia K000113701
    de Vogel, E. [3349], Indonesia K000030032
    Baker, W.J. [1310], Papua New Guinea K000526288
    Lam, H.J. [1065], New Guinea K000113696
    Croft, J. [LAE71312], Papua New Guinea K000114459
    Cowmeadow [BSIP3785], Solomon Is. K000030047
    Cowmeadow [BSIP3785], Solomon Is. K000208906
    Maenu'u [BSIP5156], Solomon Is. K000030050
    Maenu'u [BSIP5156], Solomon Is. K000208910

    First published in Ann. Jard. Bot. Buitenzorg 1: 141 (1876)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R. & Dransfield, J. (2005). World Checklist of Palms: 1-223. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Literature

    Palmweb - Palms of the World Online
    • J. Dransfield & N. Uhl & C. Asmussen & W.J. Baker & M. Harley & C. Lewis, Genera Palmarum. The evolution and classification of palms. 2008

    Sources

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Palmweb - Palms of the World Online
    Palmweb 2011. Palmweb: Palms of the World Online. Published on the internet http://www.palmweb.org. Accessed on 21/04/2013
    Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0