1. Family: Orchidaceae Juss.
    1. Oeceoclades Lindl.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Africa.

    [FTEA]

    Orchidaceae, V. S. Summerhayes. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1968

    Habit
    Terrestrial, rarely epiphytic herbs
    Pseudobulbs
    Pseudobulbs close together, usually ovoid to fusiform, ± approximate, usually heteroblastic (with only one internode elongated, the remaining basal ones very short), apex 1–3-leaved, up to 15 cm. long and 3 cm. broad, but often narrower
    Leaves
    Leaves usually with duplicate vernation, coriaceous, conduplicate, often variegated, usually petiolate, the petiole articulate some distance above the base and sometimes above the middle, the line of articulation consisting of a number of irregular blunt or acute teeth or occasionally ± regular
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences arising from the base of the pseudobulb, often exceeding the leaves, simply racemose or frequently paniculate; bracts inconspicuous, rarely with a basal extrafloral nectary
    Flowers
    Flowers resupinate, rather small, thin in texture
    Perianth
    Sepals and petals free, variously spreading, similar, the petals usually slightly shorter and broader
    Labellum
    Lip decurved, spurred, 3- or apparently 4-lobed; side lobes erect; mid-lobe usually lobulate or emarginate; disc either with 2 approximate, quadrate or triangular calli at the spur entrance or with 3 variously thickened, parallel ridges which together with the lateral nerves are sparsely but distinctly papillose or hirsute
    Column
    Column erect, short, oblique at the base or with a short foot; anther cucullate or cristate; pollinia 2, ovoid or pyriform, on a short or rudimentary stipe; viscidium large; stigmata confluent; rostellum short.
    [FZ]

    Orchidaceae, I. la Croix & P.J. Cribb. Flora Zambesiaca 11:2. 1998

    Habit
    Terrestrial herbs, rarely epiphytic.
    Pseudobulbs
    Pseudobulbs set close together, heteroblastic, ovoid to fusiform, 1–3-leaved at the apex.
    Leaves
    Leaves coriaceous, conduplicate, not plicate, often variegated, usually petiolate with the petiole articulate above the base.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences arising from base of the pseudobulb, simple or branched, several- to many-flowered.
    Flowers
    Flowers resupinate, relatively small, thin-textured.
    Calyx
    Sepals and petals free, variously spreading, subsimilar, the petals usually shorter and broader than the sepals.
    Labellum
    Lip spurred, 3-lobed, the mid-lobe usually 2-lobed or emarginate so that the lip appears 4-lobed; disk either with 2 quadrate or triangular calli at the mouth of the spur or with 3 variously thickened, parallel ridges which, together with the lateral veins, are sparsely but distinctly papillose or hirsute.
    Column
    Column erect, rather short, oblique at the base; anther cucullate or cristate; pollinia 2, ovoid or pyriform, on a short or rudimentary stipes; viscidium large; stigmata confluent; rostellum short.
    [E-EM]
    Distribution

    Oeceoclades comprises about 50 species, widespread in Madagascar and the African tropics. It is also found in tropical Asia, the southwestern Pacific islands, Australia, and recently the Neotropics. The centre of diversity lies in Madagascar. Oeceoclades pulchra (Thouars) M.A.Clem. & P.J.Cribb ranges from tropical Africa and Madagascar to tropical Asia, Australia, and the southwestern Pacific islands. Oeceoclades maculata (Lindl.) Lindl. is widespread in the tropical Americas as well as tropical Africa and Madagascar. Stern (1988) reasoned that this species originated in Africa and may have then seeded across the Atlantic in the Paleocene (54 million years ago) when Africa and South America were only 500 miles apart and spanned by volcanic islands, promoted by the development of autogamy; this hypothesis can be discounted due to the low levels of genetic divergence in this genus. It has to be a recent long-distance dispersal, perhaps man-assisted. It is weedy and is actively expanding its range. (PC, AP).

    Ecology

    Many coriaceous-leaved species grow in sandy soils in dry forests and scrub at sea level and slightly higher elevations inland. A few coriaceous-leaved species are found in dry tropical forests on limestone in karst areas. The plicate-leaved species are found in moister tropical evergreen forests, often in montane and low-elevation forests, from sea level to 1400 m. (PC).

    General Description

    Terrestrial herbs, rarely epiphytic.Pseudobulbs set close together, heteroblastic, ovoid to fusiform, 1–3-leaved at the apex.Leaves coriaceous, conduplicate, not plicate, often variegated, usually petiolate with the petiole articulate above the base.Inflorescences arising from base of the pseudobulb, simple or branched, several- to many-flowered.Flowers resupinate, relatively small, thin-textured.Sepals and petals free, variously spreading, subsimilar, the petals usually shorter and broader than the sepals.Lip spurred, 3-lobed, the mid-lobe usually 2-lobed or emarginate so that the lip appears 4-lobed; disk either with 2 quadrate or triangular calli at the mouth of the spur or with 3 variously thickened, parallel ridges which, together with the lateral veins, are sparsely but distinctly papillose or hirsute.Column erect, rather short, oblique at the base; anther cucullate or cristate; pollinia 2, ovoid or pyriform, on a short or rudimentary stipes; viscidium large; stigmata confluent; rostellum short.

    Terrestrial or rarely lithophytic herbs. Roots basal. Perennating organ stem-like or pseudobulbous, cylindrical, fusiform, conical or ovoid, heteroblastic, often angular in cross-section. Leaves linear, lanceolate, ovate or elliptic, acute to acuminate, conduplicate and coriaceous or plicate, articulate at base, usually petiolate, green or mottled with light and dark green, rarely flushed with purple. Infl orescence lateral, usually exceeding leaves, simple or branching; bracts inconspicuous, persistent, rarely with an extrafl oral nectary. Flowers white, yellow, green or brown, sometimes purplestriped; labellum white or yellow with purple venation. Dorsal sepal free, erect to porrect, obovate to spatulate; lateral sepals oblique at base, otherwise similar to dorsal sepal. Petals free, similar or dissimilar to sepals, obovate to elliptic-oblong, often broader than sepals, often porrect. Labellum free to base, trilobed, spurred at the base, callose, lateral lobes free to base of column, midlobe fl at or convex; callus two- or three-ridged. Column with a distinct foot; pollinia two, ovoid or pyriform. Ovary cylindrical, grooved. (PC).

    Terrestrial, rarely epiphytic herbs. Pseudobulbs close together, usually ovoid to fusiform, ± approximate, usually heteroblastic (with only one internode elongated, the remaining basal ones very short), apex 1–3-leaved, up to 15 cm. long and 3 cm. broad, but often narrower. Leaves usually with duplicate vernation, coriaceous, conduplicate, often variegated, usually petiolate, the petiole articulate some distance above the base and sometimes above the middle, the line of articulation consisting of a number of irregular blunt or acute teeth or occasionally ± regular. Inflorescences arising from the base of the pseudobulb, often exceeding the leaves, simply racemose or frequently paniculate; bracts inconspicuous, rarely with a basal extrafloral nectary. Flowers resupinate, rather small, thin in texture. Sepals and petals free, variously spreading, similar, the petals usually slightly shorter and broader. Lip decurved, spurred, 3- or apparently 4-lobed; side lobes erect; mid-lobe usually lobulate or emarginate; disc either with 2 approximate, quadrate or triangular calli at the spur entrance or with 3 variously thickened, parallel ridges which together with the lateral nerves are sparsely but distinctly papillose or hirsute. Column erect, short, oblique at the base or with a short foot; anther cucullate or cristate; pollinia 2, ovoid or pyriform, on a short or rudimentary stipe; viscidium large; stigmata confluent; rostellum short.

    [E-EM]
    Use

    Some species such as O. maculata and O. pulchra are sometimes cultivated. An extract of an unidentified species is drunk as an aphrodisiac (reported as Eulophidium, Lawler 1984). (AP).

    Images

    Distribution

    Doubtfully present in:

    India

    Native to:

    Angola, Benin, Burkina, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Repu, Comoros, Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Ivory Coast, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Nigeria, Rwanda, Réunion, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Extinct in:

    Seychelles

    Introduced into:

    Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Bahamas, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Cayman Is., Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Florida, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Leeward Is., Mexico Southeast, Netherlands Antilles, Panamá, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico, Suriname, Trinidad-Tobago, Venezuela, Windward Is.

    Oeceoclades Lindl. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Tanzania 19966.000
    Madagascar 61517.000
    Madagascar 61519.000
    Madagascar 61521.000
    8828.000
    Tanzania 8843.000
    Madagascar 72721.000
    Casteline, J. [H 347/67], Kenya 31069.000

    First published in Edwards's Bot. Reg. 18: t. 1522 (1832)

    Accepted by

    • Pridgeon, A.M., Cribb, P.J., Chase, M.C. & Rasmussen, F.N. (2009). Epidendroideae (Part two) Genera Orchidacearum 5: 1-585. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Govaerts, R. (2003). World Checklist of Monocotyledons Database in ACCESS: 1-71827. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Literature

    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Garay & P. Taylor in Bot. Mus. Leafl. [Harv. Univ.] 24, 9: 249–274 (1976).
    • in Edward’s Bot. Reg. 18: sub t. 1522 (1832).
    Eulophiinae: e-monocot.org
    • Bone, R.E., J. Smith, A.C., Arrigo, N. & Buerki, S. A macro-ecological perspective on crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) photosynthesis evolution in Afro-Madagascan drylands: Eulophiinae orchids as a case study. New Phytologist n/a - n/a (2015).doi:10.111
    • Lindley, J. Original description of Oeceoclades. 18, (1842).
    • Garay, L.A. & Taylor, P. The genus Oeceoclades. (1976).at
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • in Bot. Reg. 18, sub t. 1522 (1832)

    Sources

    Eulophiinae: e-monocot.org
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/
    All Rights Reserved

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0