1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Arrhenatherum P.Beauv.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Macaronesia, Europe to Central & W. Asia, NW. Africa.

    [GB]

    nonem

    Habit
    Perennial. Rhizomes absent (6), or elongated (1). Stolons absent (6), or present (1). Culms erect (4/4), or geniculately ascending (1/4); 17-75.64-180 cm long. Ligule an eciliate membrane. Leaf-blades filiform (1), or linear (6).
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle. Panicle open. Spikelets solitary. Fertile spikelets pedicelled. Pedicels filiform (1/1), or linear (1/1); tip widened (1/1).
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; with a barren rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate (1), or oblong (6); laterally compressed; 6-10.14-16 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Rhachilla internodes elongated between glumes (1), or elongated below proximal fertile floret. Floret callus pilose (6/6).
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; with a barren rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate (1), or oblong (6); laterally compressed; 6-10.14-16 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Rhachilla internodes elongated between glumes (1), or elongated below proximal fertile floret. Floret callus pilose (6/6).
    Glume
    Glumes persistent; reaching apex of florets; thinner than fertile lemma; gaping. Lower glume lanceolate; 0.5-0.6914-0.75 length of upper glume; membranous; 1-keeled; 1 -veined (5), or 3 -veined (2). Lower glume lateral veins absent (5), or obscure (2). Lower glume apex acute (4), or acuminate (3). Upper glume lanceolate (6), or ovate (1); 0.9-1.107-1.2 length of adjacent fertile lemma; membranous; 1-keeled; 1 -veined (1), or 3 -veined (6). Upper glume apex acute (4), or acuminate (3).
    Florets
    Basal sterile florets male; with palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret elliptic (5), or ovate (2); 0.9-0.95-1 length of fertile lemma; chartaceous; 7 -veined (3/3); acute (4/5), or acuminate (4/5), or setaceously attenuate (1/5); awned. Fertile lemma lanceolate (1), or elliptic (5), or obovate (1); chartaceous; much thinner above; without keel; 5-6 -veined (1), or 7 -veined. Lemma surface glabrous (2), or pubescent (3), or pilose (2), or villous (1). Lemma apex entire (4), or dentate (3); 2 -fid (3/3); acuminate (4/4); muticous (4), or mucronate (2), or awned; 1 -awned. Principal lemma awn subapical; straight, or geniculate (1). Palea keels ciliolate.
    Flowers
    Anthers 3. Ovary pubescent all over.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp (6/6); lanceolate (1/3), or oblong (2/3); dorsally compressed (1/1). Embryo 0.1 length of caryopsis. Hilum linear (1/1); 0.33 length of caryopsis.
    Distribution
    Europe (5), or Africa (4), or Temperate Asia (4), or Australasia (1), or Pacific (1), or North America (1), or South America (1).

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Austria, Azores, Baleares, Baltic States, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canary Is., Central European Rus, Corse, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, East Aegean Is., East European Russia, Finland, France, Føroyar, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Italy, Kazakhstan, Kirgizstan, Kriti, Krym, Lebanon-Syria, Madeira, Morocco, Netherlands, North Caucasus, North European Russi, Northwest European R, Norway, Palestine, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Sardegna, Sicilia, South European Russi, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Transcaucasus, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Yugoslavia

    Introduced into:

    Alabama, Alaska, Antipodean Is., Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Argentina South, Arizona, Arkansas, Brazil South, British Columbia, California, Chatham Is., Chile Central, Chile South, Colombia, Colorado, Connecticut, Crozet Is., Delaware, District of Columbia, Ecuador, Falkland Is., Georgia, Hawaii, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Japan, Kamchatka, Kansas, Kentucky, Kerguelen, Korea, KwaZulu-Natal, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Masachusettes, Mexico Southeast, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Brunswick, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New South Wales, New York, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Newfoundland, North Carolina, Nova Scotia, Ohio, Ontario, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Queensland, Québec, Rhode I., Réunion, Sakhalin, South Australia, South Dakota, Sri Lanka, Tadzhikistan, Tasmania, Tennessee, Uruguay, Utah, Vermont, Victoria, Virginia, Washington, West Himalaya, West Virginia, Western Australia, Wisconsin, Wyoming

    Arrhenatherum P.Beauv. appears in other Kew resources:

    First published in Ess. Agrostogr.: 55 (1812)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R.H.A. (2011). World checklist of selected plant families published update Facilitated by the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Sources

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0