1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Brachypodium P.Beauv.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Mexico to Bolivia, Old World.

    [FTEA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips And S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

    Habit
    Tufted or rhizomatous perennials, rarely annual
    Leaves
    Leaf-blades flat and thin, or stiff and convolute
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a raceme, the pedicels 1–3 mm. long
    Spikelets
    Spikelets 6–22-flowered; glumes 3–7-nerved; lemmas usually awned, rarely apiculate; palea a little shorter than the lemma, ciliolate on the keels, truncate.
    [FZ]

    Gramineae, E. Launert. Flora Zambesiaca 10:1. 1971

    Spikelets
    Spikelets subsessile, solitary, several- to many-flowered, at first cylindric, later elatrally slightly compressed, usually awned.
    Florets
    Florets hermaphrodite, all fertile but the uppermost usually reduced.
    Glume
    Glumes unequal, 3-7(-9)-nerved.
    Lemma
    Lemmas 7-9-nerved, oblong to oblong-lanceolate, densely imbricate at first, later somewhat spreading, mucronate or with a straight awn, dorsally rounded: callus very short, obtuse.
    Palea
    Paleas slightly shorter than the corresponding lemmas, oblong, with the apex broadly obtuse to truncate, 2-keeled, pectinate-ciliate along the keels.
    Lodicules
    Lodicules 2, lanceolate, with the apex usually truncate, ciliate or more rarely glabrous.
    Stamens
    Stamens 3, rarely 2.
    Pistil
    Ovary with a villous apical appendage or simply hairy; styles inserted at the appendage, short; stigmas plumose, laterally exserted.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis oblong to linear in outline, convex-concave, with an apical ciliate appendage, usually tightly enclosed by the palea; hilum filiform, very long.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a simple terminal raceme (pseudo-spike), with the spikelets alternating in 2 rows on opposite sides of the rhachis. Rhachilla disarticulating above the glumes and between the florets, glabrous, smooth.
    Habit
    Perennial or more rarely annual grasses of varying habits, often rhizomatous.
    Ligules
    Ligule membranous.
    [GB]

    nonem

    Habit
    Annual (1), or perennial (15). Rhizomes absent (13), or short (1), or elongated (2). Stolons absent (14), or present (2). Culms erect (9/14), or geniculately ascending (9/14), or decumbent (3/14); 3-49.78-150 cm long; firm (12), or wiry (4); rooting from lower nodes (1/1). Lateral branches lacking (2/4), or sparse (2/4), or ample (1/4). Ligule an eciliate membrane. Leaf-blades aciculate (1), or filiform (1), or linear (13), or lanceolate (1); stiff (2), or firm (11), or flaccid (4).
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence composed of racemes (15), or comprising only a few spikelets (1). Racemes single (15/15); erect (4/15), or ascending (11/15), or drooping (3/15); bilateral (15/15); bearing few fertile spikelets (15/15); bearing 1-5-15 fertile spikelets on each. Spikelet packing broadside to rhachis (15/15); crowded (1/15), or contiguous (2/15), or lax (12/15); 2 -rowed (8/8). Spikelets appressed (2/7), or ascending (6/7), or spreading (1/7); solitary. Fertile spikelets sessile (2), or pedicelled (14). Pedicels linear (3/9), or oblong (7/9), or cuneate (1/9).
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 2-10-22 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets linear (1), or lanceolate (9), or elliptic (1), or oblong (9), or ovate (1); laterally compressed (15), or subterete (1); 9-24.84-42 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Rhachilla internodes glabrous (15), or pilose (1). Floret callus glabrous (2/2), or pubescent (1/2).
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 2-10-22 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets linear (1), or lanceolate (9), or elliptic (1), or oblong (9), or ovate (1); laterally compressed (15), or subterete (1); 9-24.84-42 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Rhachilla internodes glabrous (15), or pilose (1). Floret callus glabrous (2/2), or pubescent (1/2).
    Glume
    Glumes persistent; shorter than spikelet. Lower glume linear (1), or lanceolate (12), or elliptic (1), or oblong (3), or ovate (1); 0.5-0.7381-1 length of upper glume; membranous (14), or chartaceous (1), or coriaceous (1); without keels; 3 -veined (3), or 4 -veined (2), or 5 -veined (14), or 6-7 -veined (5), or 8-11 -veined (1). Lower glume lateral veins distinct (15), or prominent (1); without ribs (15), or ribbed (1). Lower glume surface glabrous (14), or puberulous (1), or pubescent (2). Lower glume apex obtuse (2), or acute (10), or acuminate (5). Upper glume linear (1), or lanceolate (10), or elliptic (1), or oblong (5), or ovate (2); 0.5-0.8641-1.3 length of adjacent fertile lemma; membranous (14), or chartaceous (1), or coriaceous (1); without keels; 5 -veined (4), or 6 -veined (3), or 7 -veined (14), or 8 -veined (4), or 9 -veined (5). Upper glume lateral veins without ribs (15), or ribbed (1). Upper glume surface glabrous (14), or puberulous (1), or pubescent (2). Upper glume apex obtuse (2), or acute (10), or acuminate (5).
    Florets
    Fertile lemma lanceolate (4), or elliptic (1), or oblong (12); laterally compressed (1/1); membranous (4/9), or chartaceous (4/9), or coriaceous (1/9); without keel; 5 -veined (2), or 6 -veined (1), or 7 -veined (15), or 8-9 -veined (1). Lemma lateral veins prominent (2/2). Lemma surface smooth (12), or scaberulous (3), or scabrous (1); glabrous (14), or puberulous (1), or pubescent (4), or pilose (2). Lemma margins eciliate (15), or ciliolate (1). Lemma apex obtuse (4), or acute (11), or acuminate (2); muticous (4), or mucronate (1), or awned (13); 1 -awned (13/13). Palea 1 length of lemma. Palea keels eciliate (5), or pubescent (1), or ciliolate (11). Apical sterile florets resembling fertile though underdeveloped.
    Flowers
    Lodicules 2 (2/2); glabrous (1/2), or ciliate (1/2). Anthers 3 (15/15). Ovary unappendaged (4), or with a fleshy appendage below style insertion (12); pubescent on apex (13/13).
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp (14/14); ellipsoid (1/1); apex fleshy (12/12). Embryo 0.25 length of caryopsis. Hilum linear (13/13); 1 length of caryopsis.
    Distribution
    Europe (5), or Africa (11), or Temperate Asia (8), or Tropical Asia (3), or Australasia (3), or North America (3), or South America (4).

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Altay, Assam, Austria, Azores, Baleares, Baltic States, Belarus, Belgium, Bolivia, Bulgaria, Burundi, Buryatiya, Cabinda, Cameroon, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Central European Rus, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Chita, Colombia, Corse, Costa Rica, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Djibouti, East Aegean Is., East European Russia, East Himalaya, Ecuador, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Finland, France, Free State, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Guatemala, Gulf of Guinea Is., Gulf States, Honduras, Hungary, India, Inner Mongolia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Irkutsk, Italy, Japan, Jawa, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kirgizstan, Korea, Krasnoyarsk, Kriti, Krym, Kuril Is., Kuwait, KwaZulu-Natal, Lebanon-Syria, Lesotho, Lesser Sunda Is., Libya, Madagascar, Madeira, Malawi, Maluku, Manchuria, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Nepal, Netherlands, New Guinea, Nigeria, North Caucasus, North European Russi, Northern Provinces, Northwest European R, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Palestine, Panamá, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qinghai, Romania, Rwanda, Sakhalin, Sardegna, Saudi Arabia, Sicilia, Sierra Leone, Sinai, South European Russi, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Tadzhikistan, Taiwan, Tanzania, Tibet, Transcaucasus, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Turkmenistan, Tuva, Uganda, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Venezuela, West Himalaya, West Siberia, Western Sahara, Xinjiang, Yakutskiya, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zambia, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Argentina Northeast, California, Chile Central, Colorado, Hawaii, Juan Fernández Is., Masachusettes, Michigan, New Jersey, New South Wales, New York, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Ontario, Oregon, Réunion, South Australia, St.Helena, Tasmania, Texas, Uruguay, Victoria, Virginia, Western Australia

    Brachypodium P.Beauv. appears in other Kew resources:

    First published in Ess. Agrostogr.: 100 (1812)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R.H.A. (2011). World checklist of selected plant families published update Facilitated by the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • Ess. Agrost. 100 (1812).
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Agrost.: 100 (1812).
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Ess. Agrost.: 100 (1812)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0