1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Anthephora Schreb.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Mexico to Tropical America, Africa to Iran.

    [GB]

    nonem

    Habit
    Annual (5), or perennial (6). Rhizomes absent (10), or short (1). Culms erect (6), or geniculately ascending (8), or decumbent (4); 12-59.63-150 cm long; without nodal roots (2/3), or rooting from lower nodes (3/3). Leaf-sheath auricles absent (10), or erect (3). Ligule an eciliate membrane. Leaf-blades stiff (1), or firm (10). Leaf-blade margins unthickened (1/7), or cartilaginous (6/7).
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle. Panicle spiciform. Panicle axis bearing deciduous spikelet clusters. Spikelets subtended by an involucre. Fertile spikelets sessile; 2 in the cluster (1), or 3 in the cluster (3), or 4 in the cluster (7), or 5 in the cluster (5), or 6 in the cluster (6), or 7-8 in the cluster (5), or 9 in the cluster (4), or 10 in the cluster (1). Companion sterile spikelets sessile; 3 in the cluster (3), or 4 in the cluster (8), or 5 in the cluster (5), or 6 in the cluster (6), or 7-8 in the cluster (5), or 9 in the cluster (4), or 10 in the cluster (1). Involucre composed of imperfect spikelets; free throughout (7), or connate into a disc below (2), or connate into a cup below (2).
    Spikelets
    Companion sterile spikelets represented by single glumes; deciduous with the fertile. Companion sterile spikelet glumes muticous (9), or awned (5). Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate (10), or ovate (1); dorsally compressed; 3-4.659-7 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures.
    Sterile
    Companion sterile spikelets represented by single glumes; deciduous with the fertile. Companion sterile spikelet glumes muticous (9), or awned (5).
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate (10), or ovate (1); dorsally compressed; 3-4.659-7 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures.
    Glume
    Glumes one the lower absent or obscure; shorter than spikelet (6), or reaching apex of florets (5); thinner than fertile lemma. Upper glume subulate; hyaline (2/2); 1 -veined (2/2).
    Florets
    Basal sterile florets barren; without significant palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret linear (1), or lanceolate (3), or oblong (6), or ovate (3); hyaline (1), or membranous (10); 3 -veined (4/9), or 4 -veined (2/9), or 5-6 -veined (5/9), or 7 -veined (6/9), or 8-9 -veined (1/9); obtuse (3), or acute (9), or acuminate (1). Fertile lemma linear (1), or lanceolate (10), or ovate (2); chartaceous (2), or cartilaginous (9); of similar consistency on margins (2), or much thinner on margins (9); without keel; 3 -veined (8/8), or 4-5 -veined (3/8). Lemma surface smooth (8), or asperulous (2), or scaberulous (1). Lemma margins covering most of palea. Lemma apex obtuse (1), or acute (9), or acuminate (2). Palea 1 length of lemma; chartaceous (2), or cartilaginous (9); 1-keeled.
    Flowers
    Anthers 3 (10/10).
    Distribution
    Africa (10), or Temperate Asia (3), or North America (1), or South America (1).
    [FTEA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips And S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

    Habit
    Annuals or perennials
    Leaves
    Leaf-blades flat; ligule membranous
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence spike-like, its wavy rhachis bearing deciduous subsessile clusters of 3–11 spikelets; clusters conical to oblong, the indurated lower glumes facing outwards and ± united at the base to form an involucre
    Spikelets
    Spikelets lanceolate to oblong, dorsally compressed; lower glume as long as the spikelet, coriaceous (or reduced in the inner spikelets of a cluster); upper glume subulate from a short broad base, mostly shorter than the spikelet; lower floret reduced to a hyaline lemma shorter than the spikelet; upper lemma cartilaginous, its flat thin margins covering much of the palea
    Fruits
    Caryopsis oblong-ellipsoid, dorsally compressed.
    [FZ]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton. Flora Zambesiaca 10:3. 1989

    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a cylindrical spiciform panicle, bearing deciduous clusters of several spikelets surrounded by an involucre of stiffly coriaceous bracts, these narrowly elliptic, several-nerved and free to the base (except A. pungens).
    Spikelets
    Spikelets as long as the bracts, lanceolate.
    Glume
    Inferior glume absent; superior glume subulate from a broad base, its back facing inwards.
    Lemma
    Superior lemma cartilaginous with flat thin margins.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Algeria, Angola, Aruba, Belize, Benin, Bermuda, Botswana, Brazil Northeast, Cabinda, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Cayman Is., Chad, Colombia, Congo, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Free State, French Guiana, Gabon, Galápagos, Ghana, Guatemala, Guinea, Gulf of Guinea Is., Haiti, Honduras, Iran, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Kenya, Leeward Is., Malawi, Mali, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Mozambique, Namibia, Netherlands Antilles, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Palestine, Panamá, Peru, Puerto Rico, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Tanzania, Togo, Trinidad-Tobago, Tunisia, Turks-Caicos Is., Uganda, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Windward Is., Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Burundi, Florida, Hawaii

    Anthephora Schreb. appears in other Kew resources:

    First published in Beschr. Gräs. 2: 105 (1810)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R. (1995). World Checklist of Seed Plants 1(1, 2): 1-483, 1-529. MIM, Deurne.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • F.T.A. 9: 933 (1930).
    • Beschr. Gräser 2: 105 (1810)
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Beschr. Gräser 2: 105 (1779).
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Beschr. Gräser 2: 105 (1810).

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0