1. Family: Fabaceae Lindl.
    1. Genus: Canavalia DC.
      1. Canavalia rosea (Sw.) DC.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropics & Subtropics.

    [FWTA]

    Papilionaceae, Hutchinson and Dalziel. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:2. 1958

    Habit
    A nearly glabrous trailing plant
    Flowers
    Rose or purple flowers.
    [FZ]

    Leguminosae, B. Mackinder, R. Pasquet, R. Polhill and B. Verdcourt. Flora Zambesiaca 3:5. 2001

    Habit
    Perennial climber, or stems trailing, 1.8–10 m long.
    Stem
    Stems silky hairy when young, glabrescent.
    Leaflets
    Leaflets 2.5–12 × 1.5–10 cm, elliptic, oblong-elliptic, somewhat obovate or almost round, mostly rounded to emarginate at the apex but sometimes minutely apiculate, glabrous to pubescent on both surfaces, sometimes densely so beneath; petiole 2–7(10) cm long; rhachis 1.3–4.5 cm long; stipules c. 4 mm long, lanceolate, deciduous.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences 15–40 cm long, long-pedunculate; pedicels 3–6 mm long; bracteoles 1.5–2 mm long, obtuse.
    Calyx
    Calyx pubescent; tube 7–9 mm long; upper lip 4–5 mm long.
    Corolla
    Standard pink to purple or bluish-mauve, with a white or yellow patch near the base, 2.5–3 × 1.5–2.1 cm, round or elliptic, emarginate; wings and keel pale magenta.
    Fruits
    Pod 11.5–15 × 2.5–2.9 cm, linear-oblong, moderately compressed, each valve with a sutural rib and also an extra rib just below it, appressed pubescent, glabrescent, sometimes wrinkled, c. 6-seeded.
    Seeds
    Seeds brown, with darker marbling or streaked pale yellow, to almost black, 15–20 × 9–14 × 5–11 mm; hilum 7–8.5(10) mm long.
    [ILDIS]

    International Legume Database and Information Service

    Conservation
    Not Threatened
    Ecology
    Africa: Zanzibar-Inhambane regional transition zone; mangrove., Guineo-Congolian mangrove (and strand forest).
    Habit
    Perennial, Climbing/Not climbing, Herb/Shrub
    Vernacular
    Bay Bean, Bay Pod, Bay-bean, Beach-bean, Coastal Jack Bean, Cocorico, Dralawa, Drautolu, Feseka, Graines Ouari, Horse Bean, Lalanda, Lalandana, Liane Caiman, Liane Cocorico, Mate De Costa, Mudu-awara, Patate Cochon, Pois Lan Mer, Pois Liane, Pois Maldioc,
    [FTEA]

    Leguminosae, J. B. Gillett, R. M. Polhill & B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1971

    Habit
    Perennial climber or trailer 1·8–10 m. long.
    Stem
    Stems silken hairy when young, later glabrous.
    Leaves
    Leaflets elliptic, oblong-elliptic to almost round, 2·5–9·5(–11·5) cm. long, 1·5–9(–10) cm. wide, obtuse or emarginate but sometimes minutely apiculate at the apex, broadly cuneate, rounded or truncate, rarely subcordate at the base, glabrous to sparsely pubescent on both surfaces or sometimes densely so beneath, margins often ciliate; petiole 2–7(–10) cm. long; rhachis 1·3–3·7(–4·5) cm. long; petiolules 3–5(–9) mm. long; stipules deciduous, lanceolate, 4 mm. long.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences hanging or upright, 4–18 cm. long beyond a peduncle 10–21 cm. long; pedicels 3 mm. long; bracteoles 1·5–2 mm. long, obtuse.
    Calyx
    Calyx pubescent; tube 7–9 mm. long; upper lip 4–5 mm. long.
    Corolla
    Standard pink to purple or bluish-mauve, with a white or yellow area near the base, round or elliptic, 2·5–3 cm. long, 1·5–2·1 cm. wide, emarginate; wings and keel pale magenta.
    Fruits
    Pods linear-oblong, moderately compressed, 11·5–15 cm. long, 2·5–2·9 cm. wide, each valve with a sutural rib and also with an extra rib just below it, at first adpressed pubescent, later glabrous, sometimes wrinkled.
    Seeds
    Seeds brown, with darker marbling or streaked pale yellow, to almost black, ellipsoid, slightly compressed, longest dimension 1·5–2·05 cm., shorter dimension 0·9–1·4 cm., thickness 5–11 mm.; hilum 7–8·5(–10) mm. long.
    Note
    The rather pedantic reasons for the controversy over the name of this species are as follows. All hinges on whether Thouars meant to cite Aublet or not. Aublet cites Plumier, “ Phaseolus maritimus fructu duro ”, as mentioned above. Lamarck based his name on Plumier, Plukenet's Phaseolus maritimus purgans also mentioned above and also on Rheede's Catu-Tsjandi, Hort. Malabar. 8:83, t.43 (1688). Thouars did not cite Aublet but cited Plukenet, Rheede and also Rumphius's “Cacara laut”, Herb. Amboin. 9:390 (1747), the latter being a different species. It may thus be argued that Thouars did not transfer Aublet's epithet but produced a new name which bars any later transfer of Aublet's epithet under the homonym rule. Plukenet cited Rheede, and Commelin's Phaseolus maritimus indicus, Hort. Med. Amstel.:276 (1689); Sloane cited both Plukenet's and Commelin's names as synonyms of his own Phaseolus maritimus rotundifolius, Cat. Pl. Jam. 1:69 (1696), and Sloane's name was cited by Browne as a synonym of his Dolichos maritimus repens, which as mentioned above is itself in turn partly the basis of Swartz's name accepted here. Obviously as Sauer points out all these names are linked together and I sympathize with his use of maritima but the editors of this Flora wish the rules to be followed and in any case rosea is in common use in Africa.
    Habitat
    Beaches and furthest edges of coastal bushland bordering high-tide mark and usually associated with Ipomoea pes-caprae (L.) R. Br.; rarely found inland to any extent; 0–30 m.
    Distribution
    throughout the tropics of both hemispheres and extending into the subtropicsone of the commonest and most characteristic sea-coast plants K7 P T3 T6 T8 Z
    [CPLC]

    Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

    Distribution
    Nativa en Colombia; Alt. 0 - 200 m.; Islas Caribeñas, Llanura del Caribe, Pacífico.
    Habit
    Hierba, trepadora, liana
    Conservation
    Preocupación Menor
    [ILDIS]
    Use
    Environmental, Food and Drink, Forage, Medicine, Toxins

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Aldabra, Andaman Is., Angola, Aruba, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Belize, Benin, Bermuda, Bismarck Archipelago, Borneo, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Burkina, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Cayman Is., Central American Pac, China Southeast, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Fiji, Florida, French Guiana, Gabon, Galápagos, Gambia, Ghana, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Guyana, Hainan, Haiti, Honduras, India, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Jawa, Kazan-retto, Kenya, Kermadec Is., KwaZulu-Natal, Laos, Leeward Is., Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Madagascar, Malaya, Maldives, Mali, Maluku, Mauritius, Mexican Pacific Is., Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Mozambique, Mozambique Channel I, Myanmar, Nansei-shoto, Nauru, Netherlands Antilles, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New South Wales, Nicaragua, Nicobar Is., Nigeria, Norfolk Is., Northern Territory, Panamá, Peru, Philippines, Puerto Rico, Queensland, Rodrigues, Réunion, Samoa, Santa Cruz Is., Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Society Is., Solomon Is., Somalia, South China Sea, Southwest Caribbean, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Suriname, Taiwan, Tanzania, Texas, Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad-Tobago, Turks-Caicos Is., Vanuatu, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Vietnam, Wallis-Futuna Is., Western Australia, Windward Is., Zaïre

    Introduced into:

    Chagos Archipelago, Niue

    Canavalia rosea (Sw.) DC. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Apr 20, 2010 Höpflinger, F. [54], Bahamas K000661534
    Feb 1, 2002 Coradin, L. [8338], Brazil K000930176
    Jan 1, 1998 Franco, A.L.M. [28,105], Brazil K000930177
    May 19, 1983 Lewis, G.P. [1195], Brazil K000930170
    May 19, 1983 Lewis, G.P. [1195], Brazil K000930171
    Jan 1, 1983 Duarte, A.P. [6737], Bahia K000207491
    Jan 1, 1981 Gottsberger, I. [11-51081], Brazil K000930169
    Jan 1, 1980 Mori, S.A. [12134], Bahia K000206661
    Dec 1, 1978 Harley, R.M. [18068], Bahia K000206658
    Dec 1, 1978 Harley, R.M. [18068], Bahia K000206657
    Harley, R.M. [17065], Bahia K000206656
    Harley, R.M. [17581], Bahia K000206655
    Lindeman, J.C. [5068], Brazil K000930179
    Martius [1133], Brazil K000930174
    Forster [s.n.], French Polynesia K000900306
    Mattos Silva, L.A. [811], Bahia K000206662
    Mattos Silva, L.A. [843], Bahia K000206659
    Carvalho, A.M. [1237], Bahia K000206660
    Virgo, K.J. [205], Mexico K001259886
    Eiten, G. [6142], Brazil K000930178
    Castellanos, A. [24951], Brazil K000930173
    Drege [s.n.], South Africa K000263352
    Drege [s.n.], South Africa K000263353
    Dusén, P. [13517], Brazil K000930180
    Langlasse [734], Mexico K000082381 isotype
    Sellow [14], Brazil K000930172
    Anthony, A.W. [405], Mexico K000082382 Unknown type material
    Cuming, H. [1204] K000930175
    Ridley, C. [s.n.], Brazil K000930168
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 5532], India Canavalia obtusifolia K001121189
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 5532] Canavalia obtusifolia K001121190
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 5532], India Canavalia obtusifolia K001121191
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 5532] Canavalia obtusifolia K001121192
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 5532] Canavalia obtusifolia K001121193
    Oct 1, 1993 s.coll. [146], Christmas I. Canavalia maritima K000900305 isotype
    Jeffrey, C. [1184], Seychelles Canavalia maritima 23327.000

    First published in Prodr. 2: 404 (1825)

    Accepted by

    • Meyer, J.-Y. (2017). Guide des plantes de Wallis et Futuna: 1-486. Au vent des iles, editions, Tahiti.
    • Forzza, R.C., Zappi, D. & Souza, V.C. (2016-continuously updated). Flora do Brasil 2020 em construção http://reflora.jbrj.gov.br/reflora/listaBrasil/ConsultaPublicaUC/ResultadoDaConsultaNovaConsulta.do.
    • Villaseñor, J.L. (2016). Checklist of the native vascular plants of Mexico Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad 87: 559-902.
    • Moteetee, A.N. (2016). Canavalia (Phaseoleae, Fabaceae) species in South Africa: naturalised and indigenous South African Journal of Botany 103: 6-16.
    • Lepschi, B. & Monro, A. (Project Coordinators) (2014). Australian Plant Census (APC) Council of Heads of Australian Herbaria. http://www.anbg.gov.au/chah/apc/index.html.
    • Velayos, M., Barberá, P., Cabezas, F.J., de la Estrella, M., Fero, M. & Aedo, C. (2014). Checklist of the vascular plants of Annobón (Equatorial Guinea) Phytotaxa 171: 1-78.
    • da Silva e Silva, W.L., Cajueiro Gurgel, E.S., Moreira dos Santos, J.U. & Falcão da Silva, M. (2013). Inventário e distribuição geográfica de Leguminosae no arquipélago de Marajó, PA, Brazil Hoehnea 40: 627-647.
    • Meena, S.L. (2012). A checklist of the vascular plants of Banaskantha district, Gujarat, India Nelumbo 54: 39-91.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
    • Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., Ortiz, R.D.C., Callejas Posada, R. & Merello, M. (eds.) (2011). Flora de Antioquia: Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares 2: 1-939. Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín.
    • de la Estrella, M., Cabezas, F.J., Aedo, C. & Velayos, M. (2010). The Papilionoideae (Leguminosae) of Equatorial Guinea (Annobón, Bioko and Río Muni) Folia Geobotanica 45: 1-57.
    • Hammel, B.E., Grayum, M.H., Herrera & C. & Zamora, N. (eds.) (2010). Manual de plantas de Costa Rica volumen V. Dicotiledóneas (Clusiaceae-Gunneraceae) Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 119: 1-970. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P. (eds.) in Flora of China Editorial Committee (2010). Flora of China 10: 1-642. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).
    • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • Suzuki, M., Taufatofua, P. & Koyama, T. (2007). New records of plants from Tonga Makinoa, n.s., 6: 25-62.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
    • Lock, J.M. & Ford, C.S. (2004). Legumes of Malesia a Check-List: 1-295. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Kumar, S. & Sane, P.V. (2003). Legumes of South Asia. A Checklist: 1-536. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Du Puy, D.J., Labat, N.-N., Rabevohitra, R., Villiers, J.-F., Bosser, J. & Moat, J. (2002). The Leguminosae of Madagascar: 1-737. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Mackinder, B., Pasquet, R., Polhill, R. & Verdcourt, B. (2001). Flora Zambesiaca 3(5): 1-261. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Iwatsuki, K., Boufford, D.E. & Ohba, H. (eds.) (2001). Flora of Japan IIb: 1-550. Kodansha Ltd., Tokyo.
    • Stevens, W.D., Ulloa U., C., Pool, A. & Montiel, O.M. (2001). Flora de Nicaragua Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 85: i-xlii, 1-2666. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Balick, M.J., Nee, M.H. & Atha, D.E. (2000). Checklist of the Vascular Plants of Belize with Common Names an Uses: 1-246. New Yourk Botanic Garden Press, New York.
    • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.
    • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánes, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador: 1-1181. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Sheppard, C.R.C. & Seaward, M.R.D. (eds.) (1999). Ecology of the Chagos archipelago: 1-350. Westbury Academic & Scientific Publishing, Otley.
    • Isely, D. (1998). Native and Naturalized Leguminosae (Fabaceae) of the United States: 1-1007. Monte L. Bean Life Science Museum. Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah.
    • Boggan, J. Funck, V. & Kelloff, C. (1997). Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, Franch Guiana) ed. 2: 1-238. University of Guyana, Georgetown.
    • Thaman, R.R., Fosberg, F.R., Manner, H.I. & Hassall, D.C. (1994). The Flora of Nauru Atoll Research Bulletin 392: 1-223.
    • Cirilo, N. & Proctor, G.R. (1994). Vascular plants of the Caribbean Swan islands of Honduras Brenesia 41-42: 73-80.
    • Orchard, A.E. (ed.) (1994). Oceanic Islands 1 Flora of Australia 49: 1-681. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • Lock, J.M. & Heald, J. (1994). Legumes of Indo-China a checck-list: 1-164. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • George, A.S., Orchard, A.E. & Hewson, H.J. (eds.) (1993). Oceanic islands 2 Flora of Australia 50: 1-606. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Polhill, R.M. (1990). Flore des Mascareignes 80: 1-235. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
    • Lock, J.M. (1989). Legumes of Africa a check-list: 1-619. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Banks, R.C. (ed.) (1982). Wildlife and wildlife habitat of American Samoa 2: 1-151. U.S. Fisch and Wildlife services, Washington.
    • Allan, H.A. (1961). Flora of New Zealand 1: 1-1085. Botany division, D.S.I.R., Christchurch.
    • Standley, P.C. & Steyermark, J.A. (1946). Flora of Guatemala Fieldiana Botany New Series 24(5): 1-502. Field Museum of Natural History.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • Exell Cat. S. Tomé 160 (q.v. for full synonymy).
    • Dunn in Kew Bull. 1922: 138
    • Prod. 2: 404 (1825)
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Forzza, R.C., Zappi, D. & Souza, V.C. (2016-continuously updated). Flora do Brasil 2020 em construção http://reflora.jbrj.gov.br/reflora/listaBrasil/ConsultaPublicaUC/ResultadoDaConsultaNovaConsulta.do.
    • Villaseñor, J.L. (2016). Checklist of the native vascular plants of Mexico Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad 87: 559-902.
    • Lepschi, B. & Monro, A. (Project Coordinators) (2014). Australian Plant Census (APC) Council of Heads of Australian Herbaria. http://www.anbg.gov.au/chah/apc/index.html.
    • da Silva e Silva, W.L., Cajueiro Gurgel, E.S., Moreira dos Santos, J.U. & Falcão da Silva, M. (2013). Inventário e distribuição geográfica de Leguminosae no arquipélago de Marajó, PA, Brazil Hoehnea 40: 627-647.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
    • de la Estrella, M., Cabezas, F.J., Aedo, C. & Velayos, M. (2010). The Papilionoideae (Leguminosae) of Equatorial Guinea (Annobón, Bioko and Río Muni) Folia Geobotanica 45: 1-57.
    • Hammel, B.E., Grayum, M.H., Herrera & C. & Zamora, N. (eds.) (2010). Manual de plantas de Costa Rica volumen V. Dicotiledóneas (Clusiaceae-Gunneraceae) Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 119: 1-970. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P. (eds.) in Flora of China Editorial Committee (2010). Flora of China 10: 1-642. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).
    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Suzuki, M., Taufatofua, P. & Koyama, T. (2007). New records of plants from Tonga Makinoa, n.s., 6: 25-62.
    • Lock, J.M. & Ford, C.S. (2004). Legumes of Malesia a Check-List: 1-295. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Kumar, S. & Sane, P.V. (2003). Legumes of South Asia. A Checklist: 1-536. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Du Puy, D.J., Labat, N.-N., Rabevohitra, R., Villiers, J.-F., Bosser, J. & Moat, J. (2002). The Leguminosae of Madagascar: 1-737. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Mackinder, B., Pasquet, R., Polhill, R. & Verdcourt, B. (2001). Flora Zambesiaca 3(5): 1-261. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Stevens, W.D., Ulloa U., C., Pool, A. & Montiel, O.M. (2001). Flora de Nicaragua Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 85: i-xlii, 1-2666. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Turner, I.M., Xing, F. & Corlett, R.T. (2000). An annotated check-list of the vascular plants of the South China Sea and its shores The Raffles bulletin of Zoology, Suppl. 8: 23-116.
    • Balick, M.J., Nee, M.H. & Atha, D.E. (2000). Checklist of the Vascular Plants of Belize with Common Names an Uses: 1-246. New Yourk Botanic Garden Press, New York.
    • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánes, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador: 1-1181. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Sheppard, C.R.C. & Seaward, M.R.D. (eds.) (1999). Ecology of the Chagos archipelago: 1-350. Westbury Academic & Scientific Publishing, Otley.
    • Isely, D. (1998). Native and Naturalized Leguminosae (Fabaceae) of the United States: 1-1007. Monte L. Bean Life Science Museum. Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah.
    • Boggan, J. Funck, V. & Kelloff, C. (1997). Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, Franch Guiana) ed. 2: 1-238. University of Guyana, Georgetown.
    • Thaman, R.R., Fosberg, F.R., Manner, H.I. & Hassall, D.C. (1994). The Flora of Nauru Atoll Research Bulletin 392: 1-223.
    • Lock, J.M. & Heald, J. (1994). Legumes of Indo-China a checck-list: 1-164. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Polhill, R.M. (1990). Flore des Mascareignes 80: 1-235. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
    • Levin, G.A. & Moran, R. (1989). The vascular flora of isla Socorro, Mexico: 1-71. Dept. of Botany, San Diego Natural History Museum, San Diego.
    • Lock, J.M. (1989). Legumes of Africa a check-list: 1-619. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • D'Arcy, W.G. (1987). Flora of Panama. Checklist and Index. Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 17: 1-328. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Morat, P. & Veillon, J.-M. (1985). Contributions à la conaissance de la végétation et de la flore de Wallis et Futuna Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle. Section B, Adansonia 7: 259-329.
    • Correll, D.S. & Correll, H.B. (1982). Flora of the Bahama Archipelago: 1-1692. J.Cramer, Vaduz.
    • Sykes, W.R. (1970). Contributions to the flora of Niue Bulletin, New Zealand Department of Scientific and Industrial Research 200: 1-321.
    • Sachet, M.-H. (1962). Flora and vegetation of Clipperton island Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences, IV, 31: 249-307.
    • Guillaumin, A. (1948). Compendium de la Flore Phanérogamique des Nouvelles Hébrides Annales de l'Institut Botanico-Geologique de Marseille, VI, 5-6: 1-56.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
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    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

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    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

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    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

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    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0