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  1. Family: Polygonaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Persicaria Mill.
      1. Persicaria amphibia (L.) Delarbre

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Subarctic & Temp. Northern Hemisphere, Ethiopia to Kenya, S. Africa.

    [FTEA]

    Polygonaceae, R. A. Graham. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1958

    Habit
    A variable perennial, with two distinct growth forms depending upon habitat - (i) Floating on water (ii) Terrestrial or growing on dry mud
    Stem
    Floating form:Stems weak, glabrous, green to greenish-brown, trailing, rooting at the nodes in the water. Terrestrial form:Stems erect, rooting only at the lower nodes.
    Leaves
    Terrestrial Form:Leaves glabrous or pubescent, glandular or not, narrowly lanceolate, commonly 16.5 × 3 cm., apically acute, basally rounded, truncate or cordate, subsessile or on petioles up to 1 cm. long. Floating form:Leaves floating, on weak petioles 2.5–8 cm. long; oblong or oblong-lanceolate, up to 17.5 × 4.5 cm.; apically rounded, basally rounded, truncate or cordate; glandular or not.
    Ocrea
    Ocreae 0.8–2 cm. long, scarcely tearing.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a rather short, dense raceme of reddish-pink flowers, 3.5–4.5 × 1–1.5 cm., simple or with another flowering peduncle arising from the topmost node.
    Pedicel
    Pedicels 2 mm. long or less.
    Perianth
    Perianth 4–5 mm. long. Tepals 5, ovate, ± 3 mm. long.
    Stamens
    Stamens 5, included or exserted.
    Style
    Styles 2, united for ½-⅔ their length.
    Fruits
    Nut biconvex-lenticular, dark brown, shining, 2.25 × 2 mm.
    Habitat
    Ponds or waterways; also in wholly terrestrial habitats, and as a weed of disturbed ground
    Distribution
    K3 K4 North America, Europe, temperate Asia, and North Africaprobably introduced into Kenya and South Africa

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Afghanistan, Alabama, Alaska, Albania, Alberta, Algeria, Altay, Amur, Arizona, Arkansas, Austria, Baltic States, Belarus, Belgium, British Columbia, Bulgaria, Buryatiya, California, Cape Provinces, Central European Rus, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Chita, Colorado, Connecticut, Corse, Czechoslovakia, Delaware, Denmark, District of Columbia, East European Russia, East Himalaya, Ethiopia, Finland, France, Free State, Føroyar, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Inner Mongolia, Iowa, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Irkutsk, Italy, Kamchatka, Kansas, Kazakhstan, Kentucky, Kenya, Khabarovsk, Kirgizstan, Korea, Krasnoyarsk, Krym, Kuril Is., KwaZulu-Natal, Labrador, Lesotho, Louisiana, Magadan, Maine, Manchuria, Manitoba, Maryland, Masachusettes, Mexico Central, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Mongolia, Montana, Morocco, Nebraska, Nepal, Netherlands, Nevada, New Brunswick, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, Newfoundland, North Carolina, North Dakota, North European Russi, Northern Provinces, Northwest European R, Northwest Territorie, Norway, Nova Scotia, Ohio, Oklahoma, Ontario, Oregon, Pakistan, Pennsylvania, Poland, Portugal, Primorye, Prince Edward I., Qinghai, Québec, Rhode I., Romania, Sakhalin, Sardegna, Saskatchewan, Saudi Arabia, Sicilia, South Carolina, South Dakota, South European Russi, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Tadzhikistan, Tennessee, Texas, Tibet, Transcaucasus, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Utah, Uzbekistan, Vermont, Virginia, West Himalaya, West Siberia, West Virginia, Wisconsin, Wyoming, Xinjiang, Yakutskiya, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Yukon

    Introduced into:

    Argentina Northeast, Argentina South

    Synonyms

    Other Data

    Persicaria amphibia (L.) Delarbre appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Cope, T.A. [RBG 522], Great Britain K000914090
    Wright, S.H. [s.n.], New York Polygonum hartwrightii K000831001
    Nader, I.A. [302], Saudi Arabia Polygonum amphibium 49412.000

    Bibliography

    First published in Fl. Auvergne, ed. 2: 519 (1800)

    Accepted by

    • Park, C.W. (ed.) (2018). Flora of Korea 3: 1-131. National Institute of Biological Resources.
    • Ghazanfar, S.A. & Edmandson, J.R. (eds.) (2016). Flora of Iraq 5(1): 1-284. Ministry of Agriculture & Agrarian Reform, Baghdad.
    • Villaseñor, J.L. (2016). Checklist of the native vascular plants of Mexico Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad 87: 559-902.
    • Gilman, A.V. (2015). New flora of Vermont Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 110: 1-614.
    • Ackerfield, J. (2015). Flora of Colorado: 1-818. BRIT Press.
    • Bailey, C. & al. (2015). Guide to the Vascular Plants of Tennessee: 1-813. University of Tennessee press.
    • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
    • Mohlenbrock, R.H. (2014). Vascular Flora of Illinois. A Field Guide, ed. 4: 1-536. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.
    • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2013). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 5: 1-451. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Akeroyd, J.R. (2013). Docks and Knotweeds of Britain and Ireland: 1-258. Botanical Society of Britain and Ireland.
    • Allred, K.W. (2012). Flora Neomexicana, ed. 2, 1: 1-599. Range Science Herbarium, Las Cruces, New Mexico.
    • Danihelka, J. Chrtek, J. & Kaplan, Z. (2012). Checklist of vascular plants of the Czech Republic Preslia. Casopsi Ceské Botanické Spolecnosti 84: 647-811.
    • Tupitsyna, N.N. (2012). Revision of Polygonaceae Juss. in the flora of southern part of Krasnoyarsk region Turczaninowia 15(2): 44-48.
    • Ter-Voskanyan, H.P. (2011). Armenian representatives of genera Fallopia Adans., Bistorta (l.) Scop., Aconogonon (Meisn.) Reichenb. and Persicaria Mill. Takhtajania 1: 121-124.
    • Kral, R., Diamond, A.R., Ginzbarg, S.L., Hansen, C.J., Haynes, R.R., Keener, B.R., Lelong, M.G., Spaulding, D.D. & Woods, M. (2011). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Alabama: 1-112. Botanical reseach institute of Texas.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2005). Flora of North America North of Mexico 5: 1-656. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Jones, R.L. (2005). Plant life of Kentucky. An illustrated guide to the vascular flora: 1-833. The universitry press of Kentucky.
    • Krasnoborov, I.M. & Malyshev, L.I. (2003). Flora of Siberia 5: 1-305. Scientific Publishers, Inc., Enfield, Plymouth.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Edwards, S., Tadesse, M., Demissew, S. & Hedberg, I. (eds.) (2000). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 2(1): 1-532. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Abdulina, S.A. (1999). Spisok Sosudistykn Rastenii Kazakhstana: 1-187. Academy of Sciences, Almaty, Kazakhstan.
    • Collenette, S. (1999). Wildflowers of Saudi Arabia: 1-799. National commission for wildlife conservation and development (NCWCD), Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
    • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Kharkevich, S.S. (ed.) (1989). Plantae Vasculares Orientalis Extremi Sovietici 4: 1-380. Nauka, Leningrad.
    • Grierson, A.J.C. & Long, D.G. (1983). Flora of Bhutan 1(1): 1-186. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
    • Ovczinnikov, P.N. (ed.) (1968). Flora Tadzhikskoi SSR 3: 1-710. Izd-vo Akademii nauk SSSR, Moskva.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions

    • Ghazanfar, S.A. & Edmandson, J.R. (eds.) (2016). Flora of Iraq 5(1): 1-284. Ministry of Agriculture & Agrarian Reform, Baghdad.
    • Villaseñor, J.L. (2016). Checklist of the native vascular plants of Mexico Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad 87: 559-902.
    • Gilman, A.V. (2015). New flora of Vermont Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 110: 1-614.
    • Ackerfield, J. (2015). Flora of Colorado: 1-818. BRIT Press.
    • Bailey, C. & al. (2015). Guide to the Vascular Plants of Tennessee: 1-813. University of Tennessee press.
    • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
    • Mohlenbrock, R.H. (2014). Vascular Flora of Illinois. A Field Guide, ed. 4: 1-536. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.
    • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2013). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 5: 1-451. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Akeroyd, J.R. (2013). Docks and Knotweeds of Britain and Ireland: 1-258. Botanical Society of Britain and Ireland.
    • Allred, K.W. (2012). Flora Neomexicana, ed. 2, 1: 1-599. Range Science Herbarium, Las Cruces, New Mexico.
    • López Patiño, E.J., Szeszko, D.R., Rascala Pérez, J. & Beltrán Retis, A.S. (2012). The flora of the Tenacingo-Malinalco-Zumpahuacán protected natural area, state of Mexico, Mexico Harvard Papers in Botany 17: 65-167.
    • Tupitsyna, N.N. (2012). Revision of Polygonaceae Juss. in the flora of southern part of Krasnoyarsk region Turczaninowia 15(2): 44-48.
    • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
    • Lazkov, G.A. & Sultanova, B.A. (2011). Checklist of vascular plants of Kyrgyzstan Norrlinia 24: 1-166.
    • Ter-Voskanyan, H.P. (2011). Armenian representatives of genera Fallopia Adans., Bistorta (l.) Scop., Aconogonon (Meisn.) Reichenb. and Persicaria Mill. Takhtajania 1: 121-124.
    • Kral, R., Diamond, A.R., Ginzbarg, S.L., Hansen, C.J., Haynes, R.R., Keener, B.R., Lelong, M.G., Spaulding, D.D. & Woods, M. (2011). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Alabama: 1-112. Botanical reseach institute of Texas.
    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2005). Flora of North America North of Mexico 5: 1-656. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Jones, R.L. (2005). Plant life of Kentucky. An illustrated guide to the vascular flora: 1-833. The universitry press of Kentucky.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2003). Flora of China 5: 1-505. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).
    • Krasnoborov, I.M. & Malyshev, L.I. (2003). Flora of Siberia 5: 1-305. Scientific Publishers, Inc., Enfield, Plymouth.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Edwards, S., Tadesse, M., Demissew, S. & Hedberg, I. (eds.) (2000). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 2(1): 1-532. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Abdulina, S.A. (1999). Spisok Sosudistykn Rastenii Kazakhstana: 1-187. Academy of Sciences, Almaty, Kazakhstan.
    • Collenette, S. (1999). Wildflowers of Saudi Arabia: 1-799. National commission for wildlife conservation and development (NCWCD), Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
    • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1993). Flora Europaea ed. 2, 1: 1-581. Cambridge University Press.
    • Kharkevich, S.S. (ed.) (1989). Plantae Vasculares Orientalis Extremi Sovietici 4: 1-380. Nauka, Leningrad.
    • Grierson, A.J.C. & Long, D.G. (1983). Flora of Bhutan 1(1): 1-186. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
    • Rechinger, K.H. & Schiman-Czeika, H. (1968). Flora Iranica 56: 1-88. Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, Graz.
    • Ovczinnikov, P.N. (ed.) (1968). Flora Tadzhikskoi SSR 3: 1-710. Izd-vo Akademii nauk SSSR, Moskva.
    • Davis, P.H. (ed.) (1967). Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 2: 1-581. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
    • Korovin, E.P. & Vvedensky, A.I. (eds.) (1953). Flora Uzbekistana 2: 1-547. Izd-va Akademii nauk Uzbekskoi SSR, Tashkent.
    • B.A.Fedtschenko & al. (1937). Flora Turkmenii 2: 1-217. Turkmenskoe gosudarstvennoe izd., Ashkhabad.

    Sources

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Science Photographs
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/