1. Family: Orchidaceae Juss.
    1. Papilionanthe Schltr.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is India to S. Central China and Malesia.

    [A-EM]
    Ecology

    Species are terrestrial in open swamps or epiphytic in forests at 0–2400 m. Papilionanthe hookeriana (Rchb.f.) Schltr. occurs as terrestrial in full sun in swamps near sea level in Peninsular Malaysia and Borneo, usually in deep peaty soils, often growing with shrubs and tall grasses for support. The swamps are subject to seasonal flooding when the roots become submerged; this species has become scarce in both areas due to over-collection and burning of peat-swamps. Papilionanthe teres is epiphytic on tree trunks in open forests or at forest margins at 500–900 m in China; it is recorded as an epiphyte on tall forest trees at 200– 2400 m in Bhutan and occurs on trees in scrub or on rocks at 200 m and as an epiphyte on Butia Becc. (Arecaceae) at 500 m in Thailand.

    General Description

    Scrambling terrestrial or epiphytic herbs. Stem climbing or pendent, terete, elongate, branching or not. Leaves distichous, fleshy, terete, channelled adaxially, articulate to a sheathing base; sheaths coriaceous, tightly enclosing stem, persistent. Inflorescence lateral, 1- to several-flowered. Flowers resupinate. Sepals and petals free, subsimilar, spreading, petals usually larger. Labellum broadly adnate to column foot, non-articulate, spurred, variously trilobed, side lobes erect, either parallel to or embracing column, midlobe often dilated and bi- or trilobed; spur funnel-shaped, conical to long horn-shaped, without interior callosities. Column subterete, foot prominent; pollinia two, shortly cleft, waxy, attached by a broadly triangular or subquadrate stipe to a large viscidium; rostellum beaked.

    Distribution

    Papilionanthe consists of 12 species collectively distributed in India, China, Southeast Asia, and the Malay Archipelago.

    [A-EM]
    Use

    Subedi et al. (2011) reported the use in Nepal of a paste made from P. teres applied externally to treat dislocated bones. In Peninsular Malaysia, a decoction of P. (Vanda) hookeriana has been used as a poultice to treat rheumatism and pains in the bones and joints (Lawler 1984). Papilionanthe is horticulturally significant and has often been used in hybridization.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Andaman Is., Assam, Bangladesh, Borneo, Cambodia, China South-Central, East Himalaya, India, Laos, Lesser Sunda Is., Malaya, Myanmar, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Sumatera, Thailand, Vietnam

    Introduced into:

    Caroline Is., Cuba, Fiji, Taiwan

    Papilionanthe Schltr. appears in other Kew resources:

    First published in Orchis 9: 78 (1915)

    Accepted by

    • Pridgeon, A.M., Cribb, P.J., Chase, M.C. & Rasmussen, F.N. (2014). Genera Orchidacearum 6: 1-544. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Govaerts, R. (2003). World Checklist of Monocotyledons Database in ACCESS: 1-71827. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Sources

    Aeridinae: e-monocot.org
    All Rights Reserved

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0