1. Family: Phyllanthaceae Martinov
    1. Flueggea Willd.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Tropics & Subtropics.

    [FTEA]

    Euphorbiaceae, A. R.-Smith. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1987

    Habit
    Dioecious or rarely monoecious trees or shrubs, usually without indumentum
    Leaves
    Leaves alternate, shortly petiolate, stipulate, simple, entire, penninerved
    Flowers
    Flowers axillary, usually in the proximal axils of leafy branches, the males numerous, fasciculate, the females few or occasionally solitary Male flowers: pedicels capillary; sepals (4–)5(–7), unequal, imbricate; petals 0; disc-glands (4–)5(–7), interstaminal, alternating with the sepals; stamens (4–)5(–7), filaments free, anthers extrorse, longitudinally dehiscent; pistillode usually large, deeply 2–3-partite, the divisions often appendiculate or bilobate Female flowers: pedicels and sepals as in the ♂ flowers; petals 0; disc flat, annular, entire or shallowly 5–6-lobed; ovary smooth, (2–)3(–4)-locular, with 2 ovules per locule; styles (2–)3(–4), connate at the base, recurved or spreading, bifid or bilobate
    Male
    Male flowers: pedicels capillary; sepals (4–)5(–7), unequal, imbricate; petals 0; disc-glands (4–)5(–7), interstaminal, alternating with the sepals; stamens (4–)5(–7), filaments free, anthers extrorse, longitudinally dehiscent; pistillode usually large, deeply 2–3-partite, the divisions often appendiculate or bilobate
    Female
    Female flowers: pedicels and sepals as in the ♂ flowers; petals 0; disc flat, annular, entire or shallowly 5–6-lobed; ovary smooth, (2–)3(–4)-locular, with 2 ovules per locule; styles (2–)3(–4), connate at the base, recurved or spreading, bifid or bilobate
    Fruits
    Fruit slightly or scarcely fleshy, usually loculicidally dehiscent; endocarp crustaceous, 3-locular or rarely 2- or 1-locular by abortion
    Seeds
    Seeds 2 per locule, trigonous, dorsally convex, often invaginated, usually smooth, ecarunculate; testa fairly thick, crustaceous; albumen rather scanty; embryo usually incurved; cotyledons ovate, elliptic or obovate, flat.
    [FZ]

    Euphorbiaceae, A. Radcliffe-Smith. Flora Zambesiaca 9:4. 1996

    Habit
    Dioecious, or rarely monoecious, usually glabrous trees or shrubs.
    Leaves
    Leaves alternate, shortly petiolate, stipulate, simple, entire, penninerved, usually deciduous.
    Flowers
    Flowers axillary, the males numerous and fasciculate, the females few or solitary. Male flowers: pedicels capillary; sepals (4)5(7), unequal, imbricate; petals absent; disk glands (4)5(7), interstaminal, alternating with the sepals; stamens (4)5(7), filaments free, anthers extrorse, longitudinally dehiscent; pistillode usually large, 2–3-partite, the arms often appendiculate or 2-lobed. Female flowers: pedicels and sepals as in the male ; petals absent; disk flat, annular, entire or shallowly 5–6-lobed; ovary smooth, glabrous, (2)3(4)-locular, ovules 2 per locule, hemitropous; styles (2)3(4), connate at the base, recurved or spreading, bifid or 2-lobed.
    Fruits
    Fruit 3-lobed (4-lobed)-subglobose, fleshy and indehiscent or dry and loculicidally dehiscent; exocarp fleshy or thin; endocarp crustaceous, 3-locular or rarely by abortion 2- or 1-locular; columella persistent (not persistent in African taxa).
    Seeds
    Seeds 2 per locule, or 1 by abortion, trigonous, dorsally convex, hilum often invaginated, ecarunculate; testa smooth or occasionally reticulate or verruculose, thick or thin, crustaceous; albumen scanty or copious; embryo straight or curved; cotyledons ovate, elliptic or obovate, flat, longer than the radicle.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Amur, Andaman Is., Angola, Assam, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Benin, Bismarck Archipelago, Borneo, Botswana, Brazil Northeast, Burkina, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Caprivi Strip, Central African Repu, Chad, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Chita, Cuba, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, East Himalaya, Ecuador, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Hainan, Haiti, Hawaii, India, Inner Mongolia, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Japan, Jawa, Kenya, Korea, KwaZulu-Natal, Laos, Leeward Is., Lesser Sunda Is., Madagascar, Malawi, Malaya, Mali, Maluku, Manchuria, Mauritania, Mongolia, Mozambique, Mozambique Channel I, Myanmar, Namibia, Nepal, New Guinea, Nicobar Is., Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Philippines, Portugal, Primorye, Puerto Rico, Qinghai, Queensland, Rwanda, Réunion, Samoa, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Socotra, Solomon Is., Somalia, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Swaziland, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Tibet, Togo, Tonga, Turkey, Uganda, Vanuatu, Vietnam, Wallis-Futuna Is., West Himalaya, Western Australia, Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Flueggea Willd. appears in other Kew resources:

    First published in Sp. Pl., ed. 4, 4: 637, 757 (1806)

    Accepted by

    • Barker, C. & van Welzen, P.C. (2010). Flueggea (Euphorbiaceae s. l. or Phyllanthaceae) in Malesia Systematic Botany 35: 541-551.
    • Govaerts, R., Frodin, D.G. & Radcliffe-Smith, A. (2000). World Checklist and Bibliography of Euphorbiaceae (and Pandaceae) 1-4: 1-1622. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Literature

    Flora Zambesiaca
    • G.L. Webster in Allertonia 3, 4: 273 (1984).
    • Sp. Pl. 4, 2: 757 (1805).
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Webster in Allertonia 3(4): 287 (1984)
    • Hutch. in F.T.A. 6(1): 736 (1912)
    • G.P. 3(1): 276 (1880)
    • Sp. Pl. 4(2): 757 (1805)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0