1. Family: Cyperaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Cladium P.Browne
      1. Cladium mariscus (L.) Pohl

        This species is accepted, and its native range is America, Temp. Eurasia, N. Africa, Australia to SW. Pacific.

    [FTEA]

    Cyperaceae, K Hoenselaar, B. Verdcourt & H. Beentje. Hypolytrum, D Simpson. Fuirena, M Muasya. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2010

    Type
    Type: “Habitat in Europae paludibus”, Herb. Linn. No. 68.1 (LINN, lecto., chosen by Kukkonen in Cafferty & Jarvis (ed.), Taxon 53: 179 (2004))
    Habit
    Leafy perennial, up to 5 m high, stoloniferous and with an erect woody rhizome, ± 1 cm in diameter; multiple stolons arizing from one rhizome, 5–20 cm long, 5 mm thick, with many scales. Large.
    Culms
    Culms rounded, sometimes very bluntly trigonous, up to 2.4 m long, 0.4–2.2 cm wide, glabrous, hollow except for the nodes; at the nodes of the stem sometimes vegetative shoots produced, breaking through the leaf sheath, often eventually falling off the culm
    Leaves
    Leaf blade linear, plicate, 59–225 cm long, 0.7–2.8 cm wide, apex acuminate, with spine-like teeth Leaves up the culm with brown leaf sheath 5–18 cm long. Basal leaves without leaf sheath, linear, plicate, with spine-like teeth on margins and midrib.
    Bracts
    Lowermost inflorescence bracts similar to topmost leaves
    Inflorescences
    Spikes clustered at the end of secondary and primary branches Inflorescence an up to 90 cm long panicle with long primary branches; secondary and tertiary branches 0.5–2 cm long.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets 3–7 per spike, lanceolate, ellipsoid to ovoid, widening during maturation, 3.1–5.7 mm long, 0.6–1.3 mm wide.
    Glume
    Glumes spirally arranged, 5–7 per spikelet, the lower 3–5 empty, the following glume with 2 stamens, and the top glume bearing bisexual flowers, all glumes pale to dark brown, ovate, increasing in size towards the apex of the spikelet, the longest 2.5–4 mm long, 1.5–2 mm wide, glabrous, keel 1-veined, narrow, apex obtuse, sometimes acute
    Perianth
    Perianth absent
    Stamens
    Stamens 2(–3) in both glumes.
    Filaments
    Filaments 3.5–4 mm long.
    Anthers
    Anthers 2.1–2.5 mm long
    Stigma
    Stigma-branches 2–3
    Fruits
    Nutlet pale brown, ovoid, 2.7–3 mm long, 1.1–1.8 mm wide, slightly or more strongly irregularly wrinkled, the base of the style persistent as a minute blackish knob or as a longer filiform apex
    Figures
    Fig. 54, p365

    Images

    Distribution

    Doubtfully present in:

    Suriname

    Native to:

    Alabama, Albania, Algeria, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Arizona, Arkansas, Austria, Bahamas, Baleares, Baltic States, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Bermuda, Bolivia, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Bulgaria, California, Cayman Is., Central European Rus, Chad, China South-Central, China Southeast, Colombia, Corse, Costa Rica, Cuba, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Dominican Republic, East Aegean Is., East European Russia, Egypt, Finland, Florida, France, Georgia, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Guatemala, Hainan, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Kazakhstan, Kirgizstan, Korea, Kriti, Krym, Lebanon-Syria, Leeward Is., Libya, Louisiana, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Mississippi, Morocco, Nansei-shoto, Nepal, Netherlands, Nevada, New Caledonia, New Mexico, Nicaragua, North Carolina, North Caucasus, Northwest European R, Norway, Ogasawara-shoto, Palestine, Panamá, Paraguay, Peru, Poland, Portugal, Puerto Rico, Romania, Sardegna, Saudi Arabia, Sicilia, South Carolina, South European Russi, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, Texas, Tibet, Transcaucasus, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Turkmenistan, Turks-Caicos Is., Ukraine, Uruguay, Utah, Uzbekistan, Venezuela, Virginia, West Himalaya, Windward Is., Yugoslavia

    Introduced into:

    Angola, Botswana, Burundi, Cameroon, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Cook Is., Ethiopia, Hawaii, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Lesser Sunda Is., Madagascar, Malawi, Maldives, Maluku, Mauritius, Namibia, New Guinea, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Rwanda, Senegal, Society Is., Socotra, Solomon Is., Sumatera, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Cladium mariscus (L.) Pohl appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Forster, G. [s.n.], Society Is. K000883853
    Vachell, G.H. [59], Macao K000883855

    First published in Tent. Fl. Bohem. 1: 32 (1809)

    Accepted by

    • Hoenselaar, K., Verdcourt, B. & Beentje, H. (2010). Cyperaceae Flora of Tropical East Africa: 1-466.
    • Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Dey, S. & Prasanna, P.V. (2010). The tribe Rhynchosporeae (Cyperaceae) in India Rheedea 20: 1-19.
    • Chilton, L. (2010). Plant list for Lesvos, slightly revised 1998-2009: 1-36. Marengo, Hunstanton, England.
    • Castroviejo, S. & al. (eds.) (2008). Flora Iberica 18: 1-420. Real Jardín Botánico, CSIC, Madrid.
    • Jermy, C., Simpson, D., Foley, M. & Porter, M. (2007). Sedges of the British Isles. B.S.B.I. Handbook No. 1, ed. 3: 1-554. Botanical Society of the British Isles, London.
    • Govaerts, R. & Simpson, D.A. (2007). World Checklist of Cyperaceae. Sedges: 1-765. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) (2006). Conspectus Florae Caucasi 2: 1-466. Editio Universitatis Petropolitanae.
    • Boulos, L. (2005). Flora of Egypt 4: 1-617. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
    • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Bernal, R., Gradstein, R.S. & Celis, M. (eds.) (2016). Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia 1-2: 1-3068. Libro impreso.
    • Allred, K.W. (2012). Flora Neomexicana, ed. 2, 1: 1-599. Range Science Herbarium, Las Cruces, New Mexico.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2010). Flora of China 23: 1-515. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Hoenselaar, K., Verdcourt, B. & Beentje, H. (2010). Cyperaceae Flora of Tropical East Africa: 1-466.
    • Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Chilton, L. (2010). Plant list for Lesvos, slightly revised 1998-2009: 1-36. Marengo, Hunstanton, England.
    • Hammel, B.E. & al. (2003). Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica 2: 1-694. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Espejo Serna, A. & López-Ferrari, A.R. (1997). Las Monocotiledóneas Mexicanas una Sinopsis Florística 5: 1-98. Consejo Nacional de la Flora de México, México D.F.
    • Correll, D.S. & Correll, H.B. (1982). Flora of the Bahama Archipelago: 1-1692. J.Cramer, Vaduz.
    • Quézel, P. (1958). Mission Botanique au Tibesti: 1-357. Université d'Alger.
    • Fosberg, F.R. (1957). The Maldive islands, Indian Ocean Atoll Research Bulletin 58: 1-37.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Tent. Fl. Bohem. 1: 32 (1810).

    Sources

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0