1. Family: Apocynaceae Juss.
    1. Cynanchum L.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & Subtropical, Ukraine to Temp. Asia.

    [FTEA]

    Apocynaceae (part 2), David Goyder, Timothy Harris, Siro Masinde, Ulrich Meve, Johan Venter. Flora of Tropical East Africa, 2012

    Habit
    Perennial plants, leafy or leafless.
    Stem
    Stems herbaceous or succulent, twining or not.
    Exudate
    Latex white or very occasionally clear or yellowish
    Leaves
    Leaves when present (i.e not reduced to scales), opposite, with colleters at the base of the lamina; abbreviated short leafy shoots present in the leaf axils of several species giving the appearance of stipules.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences extra-axillary, sessile or pedunculate, umbelliform or clustered along an axis that develops with age
    Corolla
    Corolla fused basally, glabrous or occasionally pubescent
    Corona
    Corolline corona absent Gynostegial corona in one or two whorls; inner whorl where present of free, fleshy, staminal lobes; outer whorl a variously developed tube of partially or completely fused staminal and interstaminal parts surrounding the gynostegium
    Gynostegium
    Gynostegium sessile or stipitate
    Pollinia
    Pollinia pendant in the anther cells
    Style
    Stylar head ± flat, conical, or with rostrate apical appendage
    Fruits
    Follicles generally developing singly by abortion
    Seeds
    Seeds flattened, winged or not, smooth or sculptured, glabrous or pubescent; with a coma of white hairs.
    [FTEA]

    Apocynaceae (part 2), David Goyder, Timothy Harris, Siro Masinde, Ulrich Meve, Johan Venter. Flora of Tropical East Africa, 2012

    Habit
    Twining herbs with perennial rootstock and slender annual stems.
    Exudate
    Latex white
    Leaves
    Leaves opposite, herbaceous, petiolate, cordiform, colleters conspicuous at the base of the lamina; small leaves on short axillary shoots frequently giving the appearance of stipules.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences extra-axillary, cymose, pedunculate
    Corolla
    Corolla lobes fused basally, recurved
    Corona
    Gynostegial corona generally consisting of a short tube and prominent free staminal parts, flat or laterally conduplicate, apically either conduplicate or provided with a horn-like ornament projecting towards the gynostegium; if corona fused for much of its length, then with vertical ‘suture marks’ Corolline corona absent
    Gynostegium
    Gynostegium sessile
    Anthers
    Anther connectives with apical appendages
    Pollinia
    Pollinia pendulous
    Style
    Stylar head flat.
    Fruits
    Follicles mostly single, ellipsoid, rather thick-walled, with or without protruberances of variable length and density
    Seeds
    Seeds flattened, ovate, papillate or pubescent, with or without a marginal wing; with a coma of silky hairs.
    [FTEA]

    Apocynaceae (part 2), David Goyder, Timothy Harris, Siro Masinde, Ulrich Meve, Johan Venter. Flora of Tropical East Africa, 2012

    Habit
    Dwarf perennial herbs with white latex
    Leaves
    Leaves opposite, subsessile or petiolate
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences lateral or subaxillary, 1–many-flowered
    Calyx
    Calyx of 5 free sepals
    Corolla
    Corollatube short; lobes spreading or suberect, often thickened below the apex
    Corona
    Gynostegial corona absent. Corolline corona arising from about half-way up the corolla-tube and alternating with the corolla-lobes, adnate to the corolla-tube below, the lobes free above
    Anthers
    Anther-appendages erect or inflexed, membranous
    Pollinarium
    Pollinaria with a pair of pendant or subhorizontal pollinia attached to the corpusculum by slender translator arms
    Style
    Apex of stylar head level with the top of the anthers or exserted beyond
    Fruits
    Follicles inflated, with scattered, soft, spine-like processes
    Seeds
    Seeds compressed, ovate, with a coma of silky hairs.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Afghanistan, Albania, Aldabra, Algeria, Altay, Amur, Angola, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Assam, Baleares, Bangladesh, Belize, Benin, Bolivia, Borneo, Botswana, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Bulgaria, Burkina, Burundi, Buryatiya, Cabinda, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Caprivi Strip, Central African Repu, Chad, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Chita, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Costa Rica, Cuba, Cyprus, Djibouti, East Aegean Is., East Himalaya, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, France, Free State, French Guiana, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Greece, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Guyana, Hainan, Honduras, India, Inner Mongolia, Iran, Iraq, Irkutsk, Italy, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Japan, Jawa, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Khabarovsk, Kirgizstan, Korea, Kriti, Krym, Kuril Is., KwaZulu-Natal, Laccadive Is., Laos, Lebanon-Syria, Lesotho, Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Libya, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaya, Mali, Maluku, Manchuria, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nansei-shoto, Nepal, New Guinea, New South Wales, Nicaragua, Nicobar Is., Niger, Nigeria, North Caucasus, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Oman, Pakistan, Palestine, Panamá, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Portugal, Primorye, Qinghai, Queensland, Rodrigues, Romania, Rwanda, Réunion, Sakhalin, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sicilia, Sierra Leone, Sinai, Socotra, Somalia, South Australia, South European Russi, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Suriname, Swaziland, Tadzhikistan, Taiwan, Tanzania, Texas, Thailand, Tibet, Transcaucasus, Trinidad-Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Ukraine, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Venezuela, Vietnam, West Himalaya, West Siberia, Western Australia, Western Sahara, Xinjiang, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Hawaii, Iowa

    Cynanchum L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Peru 44860.000
    Wood, J.R.I. [10519], Bolivia 61565.000
    Wood, J.R.I. [18092], Bolivia 62430.000
    Wood, J.R.I. [10297], Bolivia 62678.000
    Wood, J.R.I. [10313], Bolivia 62681.000
    Wood, J.R.I. [15550], Bolivia 74187.000
    Wood, J.R.I. [15800], Bolivia 74245.000
    Wood, J.R.I. [15438], Bolivia 74248.000
    Wood, J.R.I. [18690], Bolivia 74232.000
    Rico, L. [1293], Bolivia K000295041
    Bruyns, P. [5965a], Madagascar 59651.000
    Ollerton, J. [187], Guyana 72779.000
    Ollerton, J. [212], Guyana 72778.000
    Lemos, J.R. [175], Brazil K001062097
    Troupin, G. [2835], Uganda Sarcostemma 3442.000
    Bally, P.R.O. [12213], Kenya Sarcostemma 29811.000
    Bally, P.R.O. [9437], Somalia Sarcostemma 4047.000
    Bally, P.R.O. [10667], Tanzania Sarcostemma 44168.000
    Robson, N.K.B. [1496], Malawi Sarcostemma 37042.000
    Tanner, R.E.S. [557], Tanzania Sarcostemma 5370.000
    Collenette, I.S. [2828], Saudi Arabia Sarcostemma 44119.000
    Collenette, I.S. [2828], Saudi Arabia Sarcostemma 44144.000
    Collenette, I.S. [4667], Saudi Arabia Sarcostemma 47189.000
    Collenette, I.S. [4645], Saudi Arabia Sarcostemma 47781.000
    Collenette, I.S. [4730], Saudi Arabia Sarcostemma 48030.000
    Collenette, I.S. [4753], Saudi Arabia Sarcostemma 48066.000
    Collenette, I.S. [5513], Saudi Arabia Sarcostemma 49440.000
    Collenette, I.S. [7843], Saudi Arabia Sarcostemma 56446.000
    Lavranos, J. [12562], Kenya Sarcostemma 40668.000
    Fortie, M. [S174], Tanzania Sarcostemma 6770.000
    Lavranos [1446], Yemen Sarcostemma 3758.000
    Wood, J.R.I. [2048], Yemen Sarcostemma 43083.000
    Wood, J.R.I. [2067], Yemen Sarcostemma 45968.000
    Wood, J.R.I. [s.n.], Yemen Sarcostemma 46115.000
    Radcliffe-Smith, A. [4623], Yemen Sarcostemma 39900.000
    Collenette, J.S. [8269], Saudi Arabia Sarcostemma 49943.000
    Fearn, B [4226-03] Sarcostemma 44181.000
    Turner, A. [8419], Kenya Sarcostemma 58622.000
    Collenette, I.S. [6882], Saudi Arabia Glossonema 53237.000
    Collenette, J.S. [9247], Saudi Arabia Glossonema 58512.000

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 212 (1753)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.

    Literature

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 83: 283 (1996)
    • E.J. 114: 503 (1993)
    • Sp. Pl. 212 (1753)

    Sources

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0