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  1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Apera Adans.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Europe to Central Asia, Macaronesia ro Pakistan.

    [GB]

    nonem

    Habit
    Annual. Culms erect (4), or geniculately ascending (4), or decumbent (1); slender (1/1); 10-36.5-100 cm long. Ligule an eciliate membrane.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle. Panicle open (2), or contracted (3). Primary panicle branches not whorled (4), or whorled at most nodes (1). Spikelets solitary. Fertile spikelets pedicelled.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; with a barren rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate (3), or oblong (2); laterally compressed; 2-2.57-3 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Floret callus glabrous (3), or pubescent (2).
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; with a barren rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate (3), or oblong (2); laterally compressed; 2-2.57-3 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Floret callus glabrous (3), or pubescent (2).
    Glume
    Glumes persistent; exceeding apex of florets. Lower glume linear (1), or lanceolate (4); 0.7-0.805-1 length of upper glume; membranous; 1-keeled; 1 -veined. Lower glume lateral veins absent. Lower glume apex acute (2), or acuminate (3); muticous (2), or awned (3). Upper glume lanceolate (4), or ovate (1); 1-1.18-1.6 length of adjacent fertile lemma; membranous; 1-keeled; 3 -veined. Upper glume apex acute (2), or acuminate (3); muticous (2), or awned (3); 1 -awned (3/3).
    Florets
    Fertile lemma lanceolate (4), or ovate (1); membranous; without keel; 5 -veined. Lemma surface granulose (1), or scaberulous (3), or scabrous (1). Lemma apex acute; awned; 1 -awned. Principal lemma awn subapical; straight (3), or curved (1), or flexuous (2). Palea 0.75-0.8833-1 length of lemma; 2 -veined.
    Flowers
    Anthers 3.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp; ellipsoid (2/2).
    Distribution
    Europe (2), or Africa (2), or Temperate Asia, or Australasia (1), or North America (2), or South America (1).

    Distribution

    Doubtfully present in:

    Portugal

    Native to:

    Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Buryatiya, Canary Is., Central European Rus, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, East Aegean Is., East European Russia, Egypt, France, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Hungary, Iran, Iraq, Irkutsk, Italy, Kazakhstan, Kirgizstan, Krasnoyarsk, Krym, Lebanon-Syria, Libya, Madeira, Mauritania, Morocco, Netherlands, North Caucasus, Northwest European R, Pakistan, Poland, Romania, Sardegna, South European Russi, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Tadzhikistan, Transcaucasus, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Turkmenistan, Tuva, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, West Siberia, Yakutskiya, Yugoslavia

    Introduced into:

    Argentina Northwest, Argentina South, Arizona, Baltic States, British Columbia, California, Chile Central, Colorado, Connecticut, Corse, Delaware, District of Columbia, Finland, Hawaii, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Khabarovsk, Maine, Maryland, Masachusettes, Michigan, Missouri, Montana, Nevada, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North European Russi, Norway, Ohio, Ontario, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Primorye, Sakhalin, South Dakota, Texas, Utah, Vermont, Victoria, Washington, Wisconsin, Wyoming

    Accepted Species

    Synonyms

    Other Data

    Apera Adans. appears in other Kew resources:

    Bibliography

    First published in Fam. Pl. 2: 495 (1763)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R. (1995). World Checklist of Seed Plants 1(1, 2): 1-483, 1-529. MIM, Deurne.

    Sources

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0