1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Gigantochloa Kurz ex Munro

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is S. China to Tropical Asia.

    [GB]

    nonem

    Habit
    Perennial. Rhizomes short; pachymorph. Culms erect (52/52); 300-1264-2600 cm long; woody; without nodal roots (1/5), or rooting from lower nodes (1/5), or with aerial roots from the nodes (4/5). Culm-internodes terete. Culm-nodes swollen (1/1). Lateral branches dendroid. Branch complement one (3/21), or two (1/21), or three (2/21), or several (16/21), or many (2/21); in a horizontal line (1/1); with subequal branches (1/8), or 1 branch dominant (7/8); thinner than stem (1/1). Culm-sheaths persistent (8/30), or tardily deciduous (2/30), or deciduous but leaving a persistent girdle (2/30), or deciduous (18/30); without auricles (2/45), or auriculate (43/45). Culm-sheath blade lanceolate (25/47), or narrowly ovate (3/47), or ovate (9/47), or triangular (11/47); constricted at base (4/21), or narrower than sheath (15/21), or as wide as sheath at base (2/21). Leaf-sheath auricles absent (27), or erect (15), or falcate (15). Ligule an eciliate membrane (46), or a ciliolate membrane (8), or a ciliate membrane (3). Leaf-blade base with a brief petiole-like connection to sheath. Leaf-blades lanceolate (49), or oblong (11), or ovate (2); herbaceous (49), or chartaceous (8). Leaf-blade midrib evident (1/2), or conspicuous (1/2). Leaf-blade venation without cross veins (54), or with obscure cross veins (1), or with distinct cross veins (3).
    Inflorescences
    Synflorescence bractiferous (48/48); clustered at the nodes (48/48); in globose clusters (6/48), or stellate clusters (30/48), or compact unilateral clumps (2/48), or untidy tufts (12/48); with glumaceous subtending bracts (45/48), or spathaceous subtending bracts (3/48); with axillary buds at base of spikelet (48/48); leafy between clusters (1/32), or leafless between clusters (31/32), or leafless between branches (1/32). Fertile spikelets sessile (48/48).
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets (4/4); 1 fertile florets (5/48), or 2 fertile florets (14/48), or 3 fertile florets (24/48), or 4 fertile florets (23/48), or 5 fertile florets (4/48); without rhachilla extension (6/48), or with diminished florets at the apex (42/48). Spikelets linear (5/48), or lanceolate (35/48), or oblong (3/48), or ovate (9/48); laterally compressed (44/48), or subterete (4/48); 6-15.75-50 mm long; breaking up at maturity (48/48); disarticulating above glumes but not between florets (48/48). Rhachilla internodes suppressed between florets (43/44), or definite (1/44). Floret callus pubescent (2/3), or pilose (1/3).
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets (4/4); 1 fertile florets (5/48), or 2 fertile florets (14/48), or 3 fertile florets (24/48), or 4 fertile florets (23/48), or 5 fertile florets (4/48); without rhachilla extension (6/48), or with diminished florets at the apex (42/48). Spikelets linear (5/48), or lanceolate (35/48), or oblong (3/48), or ovate (9/48); laterally compressed (44/48), or subterete (4/48); 6-15.75-50 mm long; breaking up at maturity (48/48); disarticulating above glumes but not between florets (48/48). Rhachilla internodes suppressed between florets (43/44), or definite (1/44). Floret callus pubescent (2/3), or pilose (1/3).
    Glume
    Glumes one the lower absent or obscure (2/48), or two (20/48), or several (35/48); persistent (48/48); shorter than spikelet (48/48). Lower glume ovate (13/13). Lower glume surface glabrous (46/47), or puberulous (1/47), or pubescent (1/47). Lower glume apex obtuse (1/11), or acute (3/11), or acuminate (7/11); muticous (7/13), or mucronate (6/13). Upper glume lanceolate (2/41), or ovate (39/41), or orbicular (1/41). Upper glume lateral veins with cross-veins (1/1). Upper glume surface glabrous (44/48), or puberulous (1/48), or pubescent (2/48), or pilose (1/48), or hispid (1/48). Upper glume apex obtuse (3/36), or acute (21/36), or acuminate (11/36), or cuspidate (1/36); muticous (22/41), or mucronate (19/41).
    Florets
    Basal sterile florets male (4/4); with palea (4/4). Lemma of lower sterile floret lanceolate (1/3), or elliptic (1/3), or obovate (1/3); obtuse (1/2), or acuminate (1/2); muticous (1/3), or mucronate (2/3). Fertile lemma lanceolate (7/48), or elliptic (1/48), or oblong (1/48), or ovate (41/48), or orbicular (1/48); chartaceous (45/48), or coriaceous (3/48); without keel (48/48); 8-10 -veined (1/6), or 15-17 -veined (2/6), or 18 -veined (1/6), or 19 -veined (2/6), or 20 -veined (1/6), or 21-27 -veined (2/6), or 28-31 -veined (1/6), or 36-40 -veined (1/6). Lemma surface glabrous (36/48), or puberulous (5/48), or pubescent (6/48), or pilose (1/48). Lemma margins flat (47/48), or convolute (1/48); eciliate (18/48), or ciliolate (9/48), or ciliate (21/48), or pilose (1/48). Lemma apex obtuse (2/48), or acute (24/48), or acuminate (17/48), or cuspidate (3/48), or apiculate (1/48), or rostrate (1/48); muticous (38/48), or mucronate (10/48). Palea 0.9-0.9889-1 length of lemma; 3-9-13 -veined; without keels (4/48), or 2-keeled but the uppermost without keels (4/48), or 2-keeled (40/48). Palea keels eciliate (11/44), or puberulous (1/44), or ciliolate (16/44), or ciliate (16/44). Palea surface glabrous (41/48), or puberulous (4/48), or pubescent (1/48), or pilose (2/48). Palea apex entire (3/17), or dentate (14/17). Apical sterile florets 1 in number (35/35); barren (35/35); rudimentary (1/32), or lanceolate (31/32).
    Flowers
    Lodicules absent (43/48), or 3 (5/48); glabrous (1/5), or ciliate (4/5). Anthers 6 (48/48), or 7 (1/48). Stigmas 1 (39/40), or 2 (3/40); plumose (32/48), or pubescent (16/48). Ovary unappendaged (17/48), or umbonate (31/48); pubescent on apex (26/30), or pubescent all over (4/30).
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp (45/45); linear (2/6), or lanceolate (2/6), or oblong (2/6).
    Distribution
    Temperate Asia (6), or Tropical Asia (55).

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Andaman Is., Assam, Bangladesh, Borneo, Cambodia, China South-Central, China Southeast, East Himalaya, India, Jawa, Laos, Lesser Sunda Is., Malaya, Maluku, Myanmar, New Guinea, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Thailand, Vietnam

    Introduced into:

    Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Colombia, Ecuador, Honduras, Puerto Rico, Taiwan, Trinidad-Tobago

    Gigantochloa Kurz ex Munro appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Ashton, P.S. [493], Brunei K000743062
    Ashton, P.S. [494], Brunei K000743069
    Wong, K.M. [FRI32428], Peninsular Malaysia K000743065
    Wong, K.M. [WKM588], Brunei K000743066
    Wong, K.M. [WKM590], Brunei K000743067
    Christensen, H. [1560], Sarawak K000743073
    Christensen, H. [1552], Sarawak K000795546
    Dransfield, S. [SD815], Sarawak K000743064
    Dransfield, S. [SD1398], Thailand K000795544
    Dransfield, S. [SD1175], Peninsular Malaysia K000795551
    Dransfield, S. [SD1182], Peninsular Malaysia K000795552
    Dransfield, S. [SD806], Sarawak K000795554
    Saw, L.G. [FRI36360], Peninsular Malaysia K000743059
    Saw, L.G. [FRI39961], Peninsular Malaysia K000743060
    Saw, L.G. [FRI37337], Peninsular Malaysia K000795545
    Saw, L.G. [FRI37332], Peninsular Malaysia K000795547
    Widjaja, E.A. [EAW7410], Sumatera K000743068
    Widjaja, E.A. [7353], Sumatera K000743074
    Widjaja, E.A. [EAW7352], Sumatera K000795540
    Widjaja, E.A. [EAW4704], Sumatera K000795553
    Niyomdham, C. [4487], Thailand K000743072
    Niyomdham, C. [2254], Thailand K000795541
    Niyomdham, C. [2012], Thailand K000795543
    Nayomdham, C. [2104], Thailand K000743063
    Ave, W. [300], Peninsular Malaysia K000795479
    Yap, S.K. [FRI28449], Peninsular Malaysia K000795556
    Saigol, P. [3], Sarawak K000795550
    Drandsfield, S. [SD805], Sarawak K000743061
    Pearce, K. [5], Sarawak K000743070
    Pearce, K. [1], Sarawak K000743071
    Pearce, K. [2], Sarawak K000795548
    Suigkaew [7], Thailand K000795542
    Pearce, P.S. [493], Brunei K000795549

    First published in Trans. Linn. Soc. London 26: 123 (1868)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R.H.A. (2011). World checklist of selected plant families published update Facilitated by the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Sources

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0